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Global Burden of Disease Data: Introduction, Full Technical notes and Tables

Introduction

The data used here are from the World Health Organisation's (WHO) Global Burden of Disease (GBD) statistics on death and disability worldwide in 2002.

GBD found that only about a third of all deaths worldwide occurring annually are recorded in government vital registration schemes. India and China have sample registration systems. India has records for particular urban and rural areas, which are assumed to be typical of their urban and rural populations. China's figures are based on a 10 yearly household survey, where information on deaths in the previous 12 months is asked for. If these are considered to provide information on their whole populations, then around 72% of causes of deaths worldwide are known from death registration data. A wide range of other information has been used to obtain statistics for all 193 territories. For small territories with population sizes below 500 000, moving averages (averages of several years) were used to smooth the time series.

Mortality was estimated in every territory by age group and sex for 135 major causes of death and disability. These are given codes by GBD. Because of statistics for groups of categories are given as well as the individual categories, the codes for all categories go from U000 to U170. These code numbers are used in the notes below and also in our source data sheets.

When data were missing GBD used very sophisticated methods to estimate it. To help with this they divided the world into 17 sub-regions based not only on location, but also on five levels of child (under 5 years) and adult (15-59 years) mortality; groups A to E. When giving summary statistics, these sub-regions are reduced to 3: Developed countries (group A), Developing low mortality countries (groups B and C) and Developing high mortality countries (groups D and E). We have preferred to call these respectively Rich territories, Poor territories (with reasonable life expectancy) and Very poor territories (with low life expectancy). A full list of GBD territories by the five levels of mortality rating is given in table 1.

Also estimated by GBD was the amount of sickness (morbidity) caused by diseases or groups of diseases. Some conditions are therefore included in the statistics that rarely cause death but do cause much disability. Some of the conditions we actually map are far more important for the disability they cause than the relatively few deaths we map. Often these maps will reflect where the condition is more prevalent and treatment is less good. For some conditions, many of the deaths which the condition contributes to are included in a different category. This is especially true of mental illnesses U082 to U084, where all deaths due to suicide are included in Self-inflicted injuries U157 Map 482.

The seven additional territories that we always map, but which are not specifically covered in the GBD statistics are:

Taiwan (21 million), Hong Kong (7 million), Puerto Rico (3 million), and each under half a million people: Western Sahara, Greenland, Liechtenstein and the Holy See. These territories have 0.6% of the world's population living there and we have assigned them the average rates for the 12 worldmapper geographical regions (Appendix C).

Fundamental to these statistics is that every death is assigned a single cause. Sometimes this reduces the figures for a particular condition because some of the deaths it contributes to are allocated to another cause. For example, if a person with AIDS, a condition that reduces your resistance to infection, catches, probably because of having AIDS, the infection tuberculosis and then dies, it is counted as a death from tuberculosis and not from AIDS. However, in the overall statistics this avoids double counting deaths.

Classification is done in a tree structure (table 8). All conditions are divided into three broad groups labelled I, II and III. These are divided into classes labelled A, B, C etc. The classes are divided into sections labelled 1,2,3 etc. Sometimes a section is broken down further into sub-sections labelled 1a, 1b, 1c etc. All these categories are also numbered consecutively, starting with GBD U000. Some categories, called residual categories, consist of all other conditions included in a group, class or section which are not in any specific category within it. As these are often a relatively arbitrary mixture of conditions, Global Burden of Disease does not give territory data for them and we have not mapped them. Where possible we give overall figures for the number of deaths included in these residual categories. There are some other categories we could not map because Global Burden of Disease gave no data or did not map because the death rates given were very low. There are worldmapper maps of the deaths recorded in 114 categories.

All categories, including the residual categories, are defined using the codes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). These are given both as ICD-9 codes and the more recent ICD-10 codes. Usually categories and often ICD-codes are not individual conditions but groups of conditions.

In the notes the rates of death are always given for the whole population, even when a condition can only affect one sex or a particular age group. Rates for specific at risk groups will be much higher. If a condition can only affect a particular group (e.g. just women), the risks for that group can be calculated if the proportion of that group in the whole population is known. This often still gives too low a figure because, for example, you have included all females when the condition cannot affect children.


Tables

At the end of these notes are the following tables:

  1. HIGH AND LOW MORTALITY TERRITORIES
    Global Burden of Disease allocate all territories into five groups by their adult and child mortality. From these list you get the territories that are referred to in our notes as Rich territories, Poor territories (with reasonable life expectancy) and Very poor territories (with low life expectancy).
  2. LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH WORLDWIDE, 2002
    These are given by group, class and section.
  3. MALE AND FEMALE
    Leading causes of death worldwide for Males and for Females, 2002.
  4. RICH AND POOR
    Leading causes of death worldwide for Rich territories, Poor territories and Very poor territories, 2002.
  5. YOUNG AND OLD
    Leading causes of death worldwide for Children, Adults and the Elderly, 2002.
  6. DISABILITY
    Leading causes of disability worldwide for All, for Males and for Females, 2002.
    This is followed by a general comment by Global Burden of Disease on disability worldwide.
  7. BURDEN OF DISEASE
    The relative burden of particular diseases to the total burden of disease for particular groups: Males and Females, Rich, Poor and Very poor territories, 2002.
  8. LIST OF CATEGORIES

Cause of death: Technical Notes

Expected deaths

Worldmapper deaths Map 367

‘Expected deaths’ are the number of people who would be expected to die in each country if the only determinants of death were someone’s sex and age. In reality, many other factors affect when we will die – the place in which we live, poverty levels and education being some examples. This map shows where people would die if everyone’s life chances were dependent just on two basic biological facts (age and sex). Older populations will be expected to have more deaths, and younger populations fewer. Women are expected to live longer than men given worldwide rates. These expectations have been applied to the sex and age structure of people living in every country.

The difference between numbers of expected and actual deaths can indicate the level of inequality in life expectancies. In India there are fewer expected deaths than actual deaths; 8 million are expected, 10 million occur. This is because in India people’s lives are shorter than the world average. In the United Kingdom 1 million people would be expected to die if world average rates prevailed, whereas only 600,000 do. The United Kingdom has longer life expectancies than the world average. China also has a larger expected than actual death toll: 11.4 million deaths are expected, 8.8 million happen each year.

:.

All Deaths (All cause mortality)

GBD U000

Worldmapper deaths Map 368

The total number of deaths from every possible cause is called All cause mortality. About 57 million people died in 2002, 10.5 million (or nearly 20%) of whom were children less than 5 years of age. Of these child deaths, 98% occurred in poorer territories. Over 60% of deaths in rich territories are people over 70 years old; 30% of deaths in poorer territories are those of people over 70 years old. Apart from the deaths of children, many deaths in poorer territories are of adults aged between 15 and 59 years. Just over 30% of all deaths in poorer territories occur at these ages, compared to 20% in richer regions. This vast child and premature adult mortality in poorer territories is a major public health concern, and has both social and economic consequences.

Poorer territories are a heterogeneous group in terms of mortality. Contrasting poor territories such as China (with more than one-sixth of the world's population) with reasonable life expectancy (average 71 years) and the many very poor territories in Africa (with one-tenth of the global population) with low life expectancy (average 51 years) illustrates the extreme diversity in health conditions experienced in poorer regions. Less than 10% of all deaths in China occur below age 5 years compared with 40% in Africa. Conversely, 48% of deaths in China occur beyond age 70 years, whereas only 10% in Africa do.

All causes of death are grouped into three broad groups of causes:

  • Group I

Often Preventable Deaths (Communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions), U001 Map 371, (32% of all deaths)

These are conditions that are often easily preventable. They consist of:

  1. diseases that can be spread directly or indirectly from person to person [Communicable diseases]
  2. illnesses that affect women before, during and after childbirth [Maternal causes]
  3. conditions arising in babies before or within one week of birth [Perinatal conditions]
  4. conditions due to food, vitamin and mineral shortages [Nutritional deficiencies]
  • Group II

Non-communicable diseases, U059 Map 417, (59% of all deaths):

All other diseases that are not transmitted between people.

  • Group III

Injuries, U148 Map 473, (9% of all deaths):

Injuries are divided by intent into:

  1. accidents [Unintentional injuries]
  2. suicide, murder and war [Intentional injuries]

 

Worldwide there was an average of 9185 deaths per million people from all causes.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 27640 
  2. Lesotho, 25720
  3. Swaziland, 24361
  4. Botswana, 23351 
  5. Angola, 23253 
  6. Zimbabwe, 22145 
  7. Malawi, 21692 
  8. Zambia, 21686 
  9. Liberia, 21412
  10. Niger, 21192

Population growth

Worldmapper Map 369

The population increase shown here is a measure how many more births there are than deaths. Changes to population sizes related to the movement of people are not shown. Every region of the world is experiencing overall natural increases in population size; just a few countries have natural decreases in population size.

The United Kingdom currently has more births than deaths occurring there. In recent years 645,000 people were born in the same year that 600,000 people died. Thus there was a net natural population growth of 45,000 in just one year. Part of the reason for this increase is due to improvements in health care that have resulted in longer life expectancies. Lengthening life expectancies (that is postponing deaths) has led to the current natural growth of the population of the United Kingdom – when these people do die the balance between the number of births and deaths will shift, almost certainly resulting in a natural population decline.

Population decline

Worldmapper Map 370

This map shows only natural population decreases: places where there are currently more deaths than births. Changes to population sizes due to migration are not shown here.

Only a few countries, which are mainly located in Europe, rely on immigration to maintain their populations. These countries include Sweden, Germany, Spain, Italy and Greece. Some countries are experiencing natural population declines and their population size is not maintained by the immigration, so overall they experience a real decline in numbers living there. In the Russian Federation almost 1 million more people die than are born there – this already sparsely populated country currently has the largest natural population decline, which is reflected in its large area on the map.

Given current downward fertility trends many more countries will soon appear on this map.

Group I:.

Often Preventable Deaths (Communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions)

GBD U001

Worldmapper deaths Map 371

In rich territories, deaths from most of these conditions are much lower except for infections in the elderly. For this reason they can be considered easily preventable conditions.

These conditions are divided into (with their contribution to the total deaths in Group I in 2002):

  • A. Infections [Infectious and parasitic diseases], U002 Map 372,(59% of deaths)
    These are diseases spread directly or indirectly from person to person.
  • B. Respiratory infections, U038 Map 403,(22% of deaths)
    These are infections of the ears and respiratory tract.
  • C. Deaths of women from pregnancy, U042 Map 407,(3% of deaths)
    These are conditions affecting women before, during and after childbirth.
  • D. Deaths of Babies from Childbirth, U049 Map 408,(13% of deaths)
    These are conditions arising in babies just before or within one week of birth.
  • E. Nutritional deficiencies, U053 Map 411,(3% of deaths)
    These are conditions due to food, vitamin and mineral shortages.

These conditions caused 32% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 2968 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 21488
  2. Lesotho, 20776
  3. Swaziland, 20580
  4. Botswana, 20417
  5. Zambia, 18553
  6. Zimbabwe, 18380
  7. Angola, 17470
  8. Mozambique, 17312
  9. Malawi, 17204
  10. Niger, 16975

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I Often Preventable Deaths (Often Preventable Deaths (Communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions)) U001

ICD-9 codes: 001-139, 243, 260-269,279.5, 280-281,285.9, 320-323, 381-382,460-465, 466, 480-487, 614-616, 630-676,760-779

ICD-10 codes: A00-B99, G00-G04, N70-N73, J00-J06, J10-J18,J20-J22, H65-H66, O00-O99, P00-P96, E00-E02,E40-E46, E50, D50-53,D64.9, E51-64

Class I:A.

Infectious and parasitic diseases (Infections)

GBD U002

Worldmapper deaths Map 372

Infectious diseases are caused by germs (bacteria and viruses). A bacteria is a microscopic creature consisting of a single very simple cell which does not have anything complex like a nucleus inside it. A virus is a tiny microscopic infectious agent that can only increase in numbers (multiply) inside living cells of a plant or animal. Bacterial and viral infectious diseases spread directly or indirectly from person to person, for example through coughing up germs.They are all conditions that you catch.

Parasites are microscopic creatures that cause diseases, and worms, large and small, that cause diseases.

Class A, Infectious and parasitic diseases, is the sum of the following (with their contribution to the total deaths in Class A in 2002):

  1. Tuberculosis, U003 Map 373, (14% of deaths).
  2. HIV/AIDS, U009 Map 374, (27% of deaths).
  3. Sexually transmitted diseases (but excluding HIV), U004 Map 375, (2% of deaths).
  4. Diarrhoeal diseases, U010 Map 379, (17% of deaths).
  5. Five illnesses prevented by standard childhood immunisations (childhood-cluster diseases), U011 Map 380, (10% of deaths).
  6. Meningitis, U017 Map 386, (2% of deaths).
  7. Hepatitis, U018 and U019 Maps 387 and 388, (1% of deaths).
  8. Malaria, U020 Map 389, (8% of deaths).
  9. Six tropical diseases, U021 Map 390, (1% of deaths).
  10. Leprosy, U028 Map 396, (0.1% of deaths).
  11. Dengue, UO29 Map 397, (0.2% of deaths).
  12. Japanese encephalitis, U030 Map 398, (0.1% of deaths).
  13. Trachoma, U031, (0.001% of deaths).
  14. Four groups of intestinal worm infections, U032 Map 399, (0.1% of deaths).
  15. Other infectious diseases, U037, (17% of deaths).

Of the deaths recorded here; 27% of deaths were caused by HIV/AIDS, 17% by diarrhoeal diseases , 14% by Tuberculosis, 8% by malaria, and within the childhood-cluster diseases 6% by measles and 3% whooping cough and 2% by tetanus. Also causing 2% of these deaths each, were other Sexually transmitted diseases and meningitis. All other categories were under 2% each.

These infectious and parasitic diseases caused 19% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 1766 deaths per million people. In the territory with the highest rate of deaths, Botswana, with 19642 deaths per million people, 95% were caused by AIDS. AIDS caused about 85% of deaths in the next 3 highest territories, Lesotho, Swaziland and Zimbabwe.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Botswana, 19642 
  2. Lesotho, 18919
  3. Swaziland, 18460
  4. Zimbabwe, 16411 
  5. Zambia, 14713 
  6. Mozambique, 13944
  7. Sierra Leone, 13430 
  8. Malawi, 12975 
  9. Liberia, 11357
  10. Central African Republic, 11261

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A Infectious and parasitic diseases U002

ICD-9 codes: 001-139, 279.5, 320-323,614-616, 771.3

ICD-10 codes: A00-B99, G00, G03-G04, N70-N73

Section I:A1.

Tuberculosis (TB)

GBD U003

Worldmapper deaths Map 373, cases Map 228, immunisation Map 224

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria, the tubercle bacillus. TB can affect many parts of the body, but the commonest type of TB causes an infection of the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis). It is spread from person to person by coughs and sneezes.

Another form of TB is caught from drinking milk from cows infected with tuberculosis. Its spread can be prevented by heat-treating milk (pasteurising or sterilising). This type of TB starts in the gut and often affects the bones and joints, but TB can take hold almost anywhere. When the main organ affected is not the lungs, it is referred to as extra-pulmonary TB.

Not everyone infected with tuberculosis becomes ill from it. When people do, the illness is slow and prolonged and treatment with antibiotics also has to be prolonged. Strains that are resistant to many, sometimes all, of the drugs currently available are becoming increasingly common.

HIV infection which causes AIDS seriously reduces our resistance to tuberculosis. Statistics now often record whether someone dying of tuberculosis was infected with HIV or not (called HIV sero-positive and HIV sero-negative TB cases).

In 2002 TB caused 3.5% of male deaths (table 3), 6.4% of deaths of adults aged 15 to 59 years, 1.7% of deaths of people over 60 years old (table 5), 3.3% of all deaths in poor territories and 3.6% of all deaths in very poor territories (table 4).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 TB to cause 2.9% of all Male, 1.8% of all Female, 2.4% of all Poor territory and 2.7% of all Very poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

TB caused 2.7% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or 252 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Somalia, 1166 
  2. Swaziland, 941
  3. Afghanistan, 922
  4. Timor-Leste, 905
  5. Cambodia, 895 
  6. Mali, 767 
  7. Djibouti, 710 
  8. Cote d'Ivoire, 698
  9. Sierra Leone, 695
  10. Zambia, 679

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A1 Tuberculosis U003

ICD-9 codes: 010-018, 137

ICD-10 codes: A15-A19, B90

Section I:A2.

HIV/AIDS

GBD U009

Worldmapper deaths Map 374, prevalence Map 227

Deaths given this diagnosis are all due to HIV infection that has progressed to AIDS.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, was first identified in 1981 in Los Angeles in the United States. In 2002 nearly 80% of the 2.6 million deaths from AIDS occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease, usually untreated, caused more than 6000 deaths every day and accounted for almost one in five of all deaths and half of the deaths of adults aged 15 to 59 years. Globally in males AIDS is second only to Illnesses of the newborn U049 Map 408, in causing lost years of healthy life, and in females it is third, after Illnesses of the newborn U049 Map 408, and Pneumonia U039 Map 404. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which slowly destroys the body's defences against diseases (the immune system). When this has happened you have AIDS and certain infections and certain cancers can easily develop and easily be fatal.

AIDS is spread sexually, in semen and other genital secretions, and the person's blood is also infectious. People are infectious any time after the initial infection with HIV, long before AIDS occurs, which takes on average 10 years.

In 2002 HIV/AIDS caused 4.0% of deaths in children under 15 years, 14.1% of deaths in adults aged 15 to 59 years (table 5) and 9.6% of all deaths in very poor territories with low life expectancy (table 4c).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 AIDS to cause 5.8% of all Male, 5.7% of all Female and 9.2% of all Very poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

HIV/AIDS caused 5.1% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or 469 deaths per million people. This does not include deaths due to tuberculosis in people who have HIV/AIDS.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Botswana, 18708 
  2. Lesotho, 16242
  3. Swaziland, 15600
  4. Zimbabwe, 14057 
  5. Zambia, 9027
  6. South Africa, 7940
  7. Namibia, 7414 
  8. Malawi, 7287
  9. Central African Republic, 6237
  10. Mozambique, 5837 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A2 HIV/AIDS U009

ICD-9 codes: 279.5(=042-044)

ICD-10 codes: B20-B24

 

Section I:A3.

STDs excluding HIV (Sexually transmitted diseases : STDs)

GBD U004

Worldmapper deaths Map 375

STDs stands for sexually transmitted diseases. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is not included in the statistics here. All STDs are mainly spread by sexual activity, often by people who have no obvious symptoms at the time, but are infectious. The diseases, described below, are the sum of (with their contribution to the total STDs excluding HIV deaths in 2002):

  • a. Syphilis, U005 Map 376, (87% of deaths).
  • b. Chlamydia, U006 Map 377, (5% of deaths).
  • c. Gonorrhoea, U007 Map 378, (1% of deaths).
  • d. Other STDs, U008 no map, (7% of deaths).

STDs caused 0.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or 29 deaths per million people, not including deaths due to HIV/AIDS.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 705
  2. Sao Tome and Principe, 374
  3. Burkina Faso, 352
  4. United Republic of Tanzania, 344
  5. Liberia, 322
  6. Ethiopia, 312 
  7. Benin, 262
  8. Niger, 222
  9. Guinea-Bissau, 220
  10. Cameroon, 215

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A3 STDs excluding HIV U004

ICD-9 codes: 090-099, 614-616

ICD-10 codes: A50-A64, N70-N73

Subsection I:A3a.

Syphilis

GBD U005

Worldmapper deaths Map 376

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacteria (Treponema pallidum).

The first sign of infection is a very infectious but painless sore (primary chancre). There is usually a marked rash in the secondary stage illness, a month or two later. Two to twenty years later the brain can be affected, and also the main artery from the heart (the aorta). Both these consequences can be fatal.

Infants can catch syphilis from their mothers before birth and are then born with a condition known as congenital syphilis. They may also be born underweight.

Syphilis caused 0.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or 25 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 674
  2. Burkina Faso, 336
  3. United Republic of Tanzania, 328
  4. Ethiopia, 308 
  5. Liberia, 308
  6. Sao Tome and Principe, 295
  7. Benin, 250
  8. Niger, 212
  9. Guinea-Bissau, 210
  10. Cameroon, 205

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A3a Syphilis U005

ICD-9 codes: 090-097

ICD-10 codes: A50-A53

Subsection I:A3b.

Chlamydia

GBD U006

Worldmapper deaths Map 377

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacteria (Chlamydia trachomitis). It is the commonest cause of inflammation of the urethra (the passage urine passes through out of the bladder) that is not caused by Gonorrhoea (non-gonococcal urethritis).

In women chlamydia can infect all the pelvic organs, causing pus to collect in them and chronic pain. Damage to the fallopian tubes which connect the ovaries to the womb (uterus) can result in eggs starting to develop in the tubes instead of in the womb. This is called an ectopic pregnancy and it can kill the mother (deaths from that are counted under maternal conditions, U042). A normal pregnancy can end with the eyes of a baby, born to a mother with chlamydia, becoming infected. Untreated this can cause scarring of the eye, resulting in blindness or low vision. However chlamydia infection often makes it difficult to get pregnant and it is a common cause of infertility.

In men chlamydia can cause inflammation of the urethra (the tube inside the penis through which urine passes), but frequently they don't realize they are infected and infectious. They too can become infertile from chlamydia when the ducts that carry sperm from the testicles (testes) have been damaged by infection.

Chlamydia caused 0.02% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or 2 deaths per million people, not including deaths due to ectopic pregnancy.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 12
  2. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 10
  3. Nepal, 9
  4. Myanmar, 7
  5. Timor-Leste, 7
  6. Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), 7
  7. Burkina Faso, 6 
  8. Bhutan, 6 
  9. India, 5
  10. Maldives, 5

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A3b Chlamydia U006

ICD-9 codes: -

ICD-10 codes: A55-A56

Subsection I:A3c.

Gonorrhoea

GBD U007

Worldmapper deaths Map 378

A sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacteria (Neisseria gonorrhoea).

In men this causes a discharge of pus from the penis due to inflammation of the urethra (the tube inside the penis through which urine passes).

In women it can infect all the pelvic organs, cause collections of pus in them and chronic pain. Damage to the fallopian tubes which connect the ovaries to the womb (uterus) can result in eggs starting to develop in the tubes instead of in the womb. This is called an ectopic pregnancy and it can kill the mother (deaths from that are counted under maternal conditions, U042). A normal pregnancy can end with the eyes of a baby, born to a mother with gonorrhoea, becoming infected. Untreated this can cause scarring of the eye, resulting in blindness or low vision. However gonorrhoea infection often makes it difficult to get pregnant and it is a common cause of infertility.

Gonorrhoea caused 0.002% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 0.2 deaths per million people, not including deaths due to ectopic pregnancy.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 6 
  2. St Lucia, 3
  3. Guatemala, 3
  4. Burkina Faso, 3 
  5. Benin, 2
  6. Egypt, 2
  7. Cameroon, 2
  8. Niger, 2
  9. United Republic of Tanzania, 2
  10. Ethiopia, 1

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A3c Gonorrhoea U007

ICD-9 codes: 098

ICD-10 codes: A54

Subsection I:A3d.

Other STDs

GBD U008

No worldmapper map

Other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is a residual category of diseases which are included in Sexually transmitted diseases excluding HIV U004 Map 374, but are not included in any of the 3 sub-categories U005 to U007. They caused 7% of the deaths included in U004.

Other STDs caused 0.02% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 2 deaths per million people

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A3d Other STDs U008

ICD-9 codes: 099, 614-616

ICD-10 codes: A57-A64, N70-N73

Section I:A4.

Diarrhoea

GBD U010

Worldmapper deaths Map 379, childhood diarrhoea Map 233, cholera deaths Map 232, cholera cases Map 231

Diarrhoea is often caused by food poisoning and by bowel (intestinal) infections. As most infections are spread by the faeces to mouth route, good sanitation and clean water and food hygiene all help to control their spread. When diarrhoea is profuse, replacement of fluid by mouth or if necessary by intravenous drip is important. Only some diarrhoeal infections respond to antibiotics.

Among the particularly nasty infections included here are ones caused by bacteria (cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid, salmonella, shigella) and microscopic single celled animals (amoeba causing amoebiasis, giardia causing giardiasis). Not every bowel infection causes diarrhoea.

Combined these diseases caused 13.2% of all deaths of children aged 0-15 years, mostly in poorer territories. When deaths occur in children with both diarrhoea and measles, or diarrhoea and lower respiratory infection, they are counted as being due to the second condition, not with diarrhoeal diseases. Counted in this way, 1.6 million children died from diarrhoeal diseases in 2002.

In 2002 Diarrhoea caused 13.2% of deaths in children under 15 years old (table 5a) and 5.5% of all deaths in very poor territories with low life expectancy (table 4c).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Diarrhoea to cause 4.1% of all Male, 4.1% of all Female, 2.4% of all Poor territory and 5.8% of all Very poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Diarrhoea caused 3.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or 301 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Angola, 3699
  2. Sierra Leone, 2708
  3. Niger, 2193
  4. Democratic Republic of Congo, 2192
  5. Mali, 1802
  6. Afghanistan, 1795
  7. Burkina Faso, 1726
  8. Malawi, 1643
  9. Somalia, 1642 
  10. Mozambique, 1625 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A4 Diarrhoeal diseases U010

ICD-9 codes: 001, 002, 004, 006-009

ICD-10 codes: A00, A01,A03, A04, A06-A09

Section I:A5.

Vaccine preventable diseases (Childhood-cluster diseases)

GBD U011

Worldmapper deaths Map 380

The conditions referred to as Childhood cluster diseases are (with their contribution to the total Section A5 deaths in 2002):

  • Whooping cough, U012 Map 381, (26% of deaths).
  • Polio, U013 Map 382, (0.1% of deaths).
  • Diphtheria, U014 Map 383, (0.5% of deaths).
  • Measles, U015 Map 384, (54% of deaths).
  • Tetanus, U016 Map 385, (19% of deaths).

These are all diseases that could be virtually eliminated by universal childhood immunisation with current vaccines. A vaccine does not have to be 100% effective to make a common disease rare throughout a territory. Often if enough people are immunised, the incidence of the disease will fall and fall, and sometimes even disappear. This occurred with smallpox; one of the world's most dreaded diseases. There is a written description of it occurring in China over 3000 years ago. In 1967 it probably caused about 2 million deaths. In 1977 it was declared eradicated. This was achieved by isolating cases and their contacts and by using a vaccine which was not 100% effective and sometimes had serious side effects. No treatment or cure for smallpox had been discovered. Many people consider vaccination as one of the greatest discoveries of modern medicine.

Of the deaths recorded here; 54% of deaths are caused by measles, 26% by Whooping cough and 19% by tetanus.

Childhood-cluster diseases caused 2.0% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or 180 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Somalia, 2139 
  2. Niger, 2035
  3. Guinea-Bissau, 1849 
  4. Sierra Leone, 1579
  5. Guinea, 1550
  6. Liberia, 1548 
  7. Chad, 1501
  8. Nigeria, 1470 
  9. Central African Republic, 1243
  10. Equatorial Guinea, 1226

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A5 Childhood-cluster diseases U011

ICD-9 codes: 032, 033, 037, 045, 055, 138, 771.3

ICD-10 codes: A33-A37, A80, B05, B91

Subsection I:A5a.

Whooping cough (Pertussis)

GBD U012

Worldmapper deaths Map 381

More commonly known as whooping cough, pertussis is an infection of the respiratory tract with a bacteria (Bordetella pertussis). It causes a prolonged illness (often over 3 months) with sudden violent coughing followed by a high pitched whoop when at last able to breathe in. This is the reason for its common name: whooping cough. Permanent lung damage (bronchiectasis) can occur. Brain damage, often due to shortage of oxygen from not being able to breathe, can cause mental handicaps. Deaths occur particularly in infants. Vaccination which is effective, started in the 1950s, but it requires a persistent high level of uptake to prevent outbreaks. In 2002 just over 50 territories reported no deaths from pertussis.

In 2002 Whooping cough caused 2.5% of all deaths of children under 15 years old (table 5a).

Whooping cough caused 0.5% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or 47 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Niger, 472
  2. Somalia, 362
  3. Nigeria, 340
  4. Chad, 339 
  5. Democratic Republic of Congo, 335 
  6. Burkina Faso, 330
  7. Equatorial Guinea, 325
  8. Angola, 321
  9. Congo Republic, 310 
  10. Guinea-Bissau, 293

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A5a Pertussis U012

ICD-9 codes: 033

ICD-10 codes: A37

Subsection I:A5b.

Polio (Poliomyelitis)

GBD U013

Worldmapper deaths Map 382, cases Map 235

Poliomyelitis (polio) was a common illness caused by the polio virus. About half of the people who catch the infection get paralysis of a group of muscles which is permanent. This can result in a limp (lameness) or a very weak (flaccid) arm. If the muscles used for breathing are affected, it can be fatal. A vaccine for polio which is swallowed was developed in 1960, and is now used worldwide. Like many vaccines there was anxiety about its use initially, but by 2005 polio cases were reported in only 9 territories. However local anxieties about the use of the vaccine may make it difficult to eradicate completely. There is no cure for this disease. There were under 2000 new cases of polio causing paralysis in 2002, of whom about 10% died. Most of the polio deaths that year were of people who had been severely disabled by polio years before, but had eventually died because of polio's long term effects.

Poliomyelitis caused 0.0015% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 1 death per 10 million people.

The ten highest, but actually very low, rates of death per million people in 2002 were mainly in territories where there had been no recent new polio cases for years, but people had died from the consequences of polio caught many years before:

  1. Sweden, 3.0
  2. Finland, 1.6
  3. Denmark, 1.4
  4. United States, 1.2
  5. Canada, 0.9
  6. Norway, 0.9
  7. Luxembourg, 0.8 
  8. New Zealand, 0.8
  9. Switzerland, 0.7 
  10. Australia, 0.6 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A5b Poliomyelitis U013

ICD-9 codes: 045, 138

ICD-10 codes: A80, B91

Subsection I:A5c.

Diphtheria

GBD U014

Worldmapper deaths Map 383

Diphtheria is an acute infection of the nose and throat. It is caused by a bacteria (Corynebacterium diphtheria). The bacteria produces a toxin that damages nerves, usually temporarily. Inflammation of the heart muscle can cause permanent damage to the heart and sometimes death. Diphtheria used to occur throughout the world, but especially during the colder months of the year in temperate regions, causing many deaths mainly in children under 10 years old. A vaccine against the effects of diphtheria toxin was developed in 1939, and the disease has been virtually eliminated from Europe and North America where it used to be common.

Diphtheria caused 0.01% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 1 death per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Haiti, 24 
  2. Sierra Leone, 9 
  3. Cambodia, 8
  4. Democratic Republic of Congo, 6 
  5. Nepal, 5
  6. Niger, 4
  7. Dominican Republic, 4 
  8. Angola, 4 
  9. Rwanda, 4 
  10. Central African Republic, 4

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A5c Diphtheria U014

ICD-9 codes: 032

ICD-10 codes: A36

Subsection I:A5d.

Measles

GBD U015

Worldmapper deaths Map 384, immunisation Map 223

Measles is an acute, highly contagious infection with the measles virus. You get a runny nose (catarrh), fever, sore eyes (conjunctivitis) and a rash all over the body. Although complete recovery is usual in rich territories, inflammation of the brain with fits, coma and death can occur. Vaccination is highly effective at preventing the spread of measles. Due to measles vaccination: "between 1999 and 2005, there was a 60% reduction in annual measles deaths worldwide, from 873,000 to 345,000. Africa, where children were most prone to die when they caught measles because of poor nutrition and other infections including HIV, had a 75% drop in deaths. In 1999, 506,000 African children died; 90% aged under five. By 2005, the figure had fallen to 126,000...Measles eradication could conceivably be stymied not by the developing world, but by dissenters [from the vaccination programme] in rich territories such as the United Kingdom." The Guardian, 19/1/07, quoting from United Nations figures reported in the medical journal, the Lancet.

In 2002 Measles caused 6.2% of deaths in children under 15 years old (table 5a), 1.4% of all female deaths (table 3) and 2.5% of all deaths in very poor territories with low life expectancy (table 4c).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Measles to cause 1.7% of all Male, 1.9% of all Female and 2.8% of all Very poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Measles caused 1.1% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 98 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Guinea-Bissau, 1329 
  2. Somalia, 1267 
  3. Niger, 1169
  4. Sierra Leone, 1143
  5. Guinea, 1098
  6. Liberia, 1072 
  7. Nigeria, 915
  8. Congo Republic, 882 
  9. Central African Republic, 872
  10. Chad, 835

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A5d Measles U015

ICD-9 codes: 055

ICD-10 codes: B05

Subsection I:A5e.

Tetanus

GBD U016

Worldmapper deaths Map 385

Tetanus is due to an infection with a bacteria (Clostridium tetani). This bacteria produces a toxin, tetanospasmin, which interferes with the function of some nerves. Muscles go into spasm and cannot relax. The jaw muscles are usually affected first, hence the common name Lockjaw. Even in rich territories 40% of people (80% of newborn babies) who develop tetanus can die from it.

The spores of tetanus live in faeces (particularly horse manure), soil and dust. They can get into the body through the tiniest cut. Symptoms can start between 2 and 30 days from the injury and death usually occurs within 10 days. Prior immunisation with tetanus toxoid is completely effective against the effects of tetanospasmin in the individual. Unlike the other infections here, vaccination does not reduce the risk to those who are not immunised, except the newborn who are protected when their mothers are immune. In the newborn in non sterile conditions infection can enter through the unhealed umbilicus (navel/belly button).

In 2002 Tetanus caused 1.9% of all deaths of children under 15 years old (table 5a).

Tetanus caused 0.4% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 34 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Somalia, 508
  2. Niger, 389
  3. Bhutan, 375
  4. Chad, 323 
  5. Uganda, 308
  6. Afghanistan, 293
  7. Guinea-Bissau, 223
  8. Nigeria, 213
  9. Mali, 208 
  10. Burkina Faso, 207

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A5e Tetanus U016

ICD-9 codes: 037, 771.3

ICD-10 codes: A33-A35

Section I:A6.

Meningitis

GBD U017

Worldmapper deaths Map 386

These are a group of acute bacterial diseases of the brain which can kill, sometimes within hours, or cause some permanent brain damage. The brain damage can often affect intelligence severely: it may also cause spasticity or paralysis (where muscles do not relax or contract) of one or more limbs: it may cause recurrent epileptic fits: and it may cause long term deafness.

Several bacteria can cause meningitis and vaccines are available for some of them. Mortality and morbidity are high without fast use of appropriate antibiotics.

Meningitis is more common where there is overcrowding, poverty and malnutrition.

Meningitis caused 0.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 28 deaths per million people. Meningitis due to tuberculosis is counted as tuberculosis, U003.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Haiti, 739
  2. Cambodia, 440 
  3. Afghanistan, 362
  4. Timor-Leste, 266
  5. Iraq, 243 
  6. Somalia, 193
  7. Nauru, 180
  8. Tajikistan, 177 
  9. Burkina Faso, 158
  10. Solomon Islands, 152 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A6 Meningitis U017

ICD-9 codes: 036, 320-322

ICD-10 codes: A39, G00, G03

Section I:A7.

Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an infection of the liver. The commonest form of hepatitis is hepatitis A. Hepatitis A is a common viral disease spread from faeces to hands to mouth, where hygiene (hand washing and sanitation) is poor and especially where there is overcrowding. In adults it causes fever and jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin), but most infections pass unnoticed in childhood. Usually there is full recovery. A vaccine exists.

Hepatitis is not a specific category in Global Burden of Disease, but Hepatitis B U018 Map 387, and Hepatitis C U019 Map 388, which are much more serious conditions than Hepatitis A, are included as two subsections of Hepatitis.

Subsection I:A7a.

Hepatitis B

GBD U018

Worldmapper deaths Map 387

Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver due to Hepatitis B virus which is spread by contact with infected blood and blood products, sexual secretions and sexual intercourse, causing fever and jaundice. Because of the mode of spread, risk groups include homosexuals and sex workers, haemophiliacs and other people with illnesses treated with blood products, health workers, intra-venous drug users, and people in some armies, in some prison and in other violent institutions. Up to 10% get chronic liver disease, sometimes leading to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) or cancer of the liver. A vaccine exists.

Hepatitis B caused 0.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 17 deaths per million people. Deaths from liver cancer and occasionally renal failure are counted separately within U065 Map 423 and within U123, no map.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Nauru, 197
  2. Sierra Leone, 195
  3. Guinea-Bissau, 116
  4. Liberia, 114
  5. Haiti, 97 
  6. Burkina Faso, 89
  7. Mali, 64
  8. Angola, 61
  9. Cambodia, 60
  10. Mozambique, 60 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A7a Hepatitis B U018

ICD-9 codes: 070.2-070.9

ICD-10 codes: B16-B19 (minus B17.1, B18.2)

Subsection I:A7b.

Hepatitis C

GBD U019

Worldmapper deaths Map 388

Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver due to Hepatitis C virus which is spread, like hepatitis B, by blood products and sexual activities. Often there is no obvious initial infection, but about 50% eventually get chronic liver disease (chronic hepatitis). About 5% get cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) of whom perhaps 15% get cancer of the liver. A vaccine exists.

Hepatitis C caused 0.09% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 9 deaths per million people, but deaths from liver cancer are counted separately in U065.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 88
  2. Guinea-Bissau, 52
  3. Liberia, 51
  4. Japan, 35 
  5. Mali, 29
  6. Thailand, 28
  7. Angola, 27
  8. Mozambique, 27
  9. Djibouti, 27
  10. Qatar, 27

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A7b Hepatitis C U019

ICD-9 codes: -

ICD-10 codes: B17.1, B18.2

Section I:A8.

Malaria

GBD U020

Worldmapper deaths Map 389, cases Map 229

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a microscopic single celled animal (protozoa of the genus Plasmodium). They are parasites that live in some blood sucking mosquitoes (anopheline mosquitoes). People get infected not directly by other people, but when bitten by an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes get infected when biting an infected person, and become carriers of the disease. All types of malaria cause you to become ill with high fevers; but death rates during the acute illness and the tendency to get relapses depends on the species of plasmodium. Prevention is by getting rid of the mosquito breeding grounds, and avoiding being bitten by the mosquitoes, which particularly bite at night, by using screens and insecticides, and, for travellers and pregnant women, taking preventative (prophylactic) drugs. However these drugs have side effects and are not completely effective. Over half the people in the world live in territories where the anopheline mosquitoes cannot live, and so you cannot catch malaria there. The few people recorded as having malaria in those territories caught it elsewhere.

Apart from the high fever, malaria can cause the blood to become thin (chronic anaemia), kidney damage (chronic renal failure), and brain and nerve damage (neurological sequelae). The neurological problems include difficulty walking, talking and seeing. There are about 250 million cases of malaria worldwide each year and it causes 9.3% of all deaths in children aged 0-14 years worldwide.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Malaria to cause 2.8% of all Male, 3.2% of all Female and 5.1% of all Very poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

In 2002 Malaria caused 9.3% of all deaths of children under 15 years old (table 5a) and 4.4% of all deaths in very poor territories with low life expectancy (table 4c).

Malaria caused 1.6% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 with an average of 147 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Liberia, 2052 
  2. Niger, 2041
  3. Burkina Faso, 2037
  4. Guinea, 2013 
  5. Sierra Leone, 1987
  6. Chad, 1964
  7. Democratic Republic of Congo, 1909
  8. Benin, 1904
  9. Mozambique, 1838
  10. Nigeria, 1810

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A8 Malaria U020

ICD-9 codes: 084

ICD-10 codes: B50-B54

Section I:A9.

Local tropical diseases (Tropical-cluster diseases)

GBD U021

Worldmapper deaths Map 390

Tropical-cluster diseases are six conditions that are largely limited to territories in Africa and the tropical parts of South America. They are all caused by parasites that have complex life cycles, a period inside humans and a period inside insects; except Schistosomiasis which does not have a period in insects but in snails. The six conditions are (with their contribution to the total deaths within tropical-cluster diseases A in 2002):

  1. Sleeping sickness [Trypanosomiasis] U022 Map 391, (30% of deaths).
  2. American trypanosomiasis [Chagas' disease] U023 Map 392, (9% of deaths).
  3. Schistosomiasis [Bilharzia] U024 Map 393, (28% of deaths).
  4. Leishmaniasis [Espundia and kalar-azar] U025 Map 394, (32% of deaths).
  5. Elephantiasis [Lymphatic filariasis] U026 Map 395, (0.3% of deaths).
  6. River blindness [Onchocerciasis] U027 no map, (0.001% of deaths).
  7. Tropical-cluster diseases caused 0.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 25 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 314
  2. Ethiopia, 235
  3. United Republic of Tanzania, 233
  4. Angola, 232
  5. Mali, 223
  6. Nigeria, 185
  7. Mozambique, 171
  8. Malawi,148
  9. Madagascar,142
  10. Guinea,137

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A9 Tropical-cluster diseases U021

ICD-9 codes: 085, 086, 120, 125.0, 125.1, 125.3

ICD-10 codes: B55-B57, B65, B73, B74.0-B74.2

Subsection I:A9a.

Sleeping sickness (Trypanosomiasis)

GBD U022

Worldmapper deaths Map 391

Trypanosomiasis is any infection with single celled microscopic animals (protozoa), of the genus Trypanosoma. However American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) U023 Map 392, is counted separately.

African Trypanosomiasis are forms of sleeping sickness caused by Tsetse fly. Tsetse flies become infected when they bite and suck blood from an infected person or other mammal. The fly's saliva infects other people when feeding on their blood.

Trypanosomiasis starts with an infected sore and a feverish illness. The earlier it is diagnosed and treated, the better the chance of recovery. The West African form affects the brain, with symptoms that can include excessive sleepiness (hypersomnolence), and can cause death in 2 or 3 years. The East African form can cause death within weeks.

Prevention is by avoiding the flies, which live in woodland; treatment of carriers of the disease; and regular preventive medication of people who must enter jungle areas where there are many tsetse flies.

Trypanosomiasis caused 0.08% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 8 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 169
  2. United Republic of Tanzania, 158
  3. Ethiopia, 142
  4. Mali,135
  5. Nigeria, 114
  6. Angola, 99
  7. Madagascar, 86
  8. Guinea,78
  9. Malawi,69
  10. Chad, 58

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A9a Trypanosomiasis U022

ICD-9 codes: 086.3, 086.4, 086.5

ICD-10 codes: B56

Subsection I:A9b.

Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis)

GBD U023

Worldmapper deaths Map 392

Chagas' disease is an infection with a single celled microscopic animal (the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi). Also known as American trypanosomiasis, Chagas' disease occurs almost exclusively in Central and South America. Chagas' disease is spread by a bloodsucking assassin bug, the barber beetle. Treatment has no effect unless given early and even then is often unsatisfactory.

Chagas' disease can damage the heart muscle and muscles in the gut sometimes 20 years after the initial infection. This can cause heart disorders and failure, and also cause internal hollow organs like the oesophagus and colon to enlarge (megaviscera). Death is more likely in children than in adults. Prevention is by killing the insects and screening blood used for transfusions, which can also spread it.

Chagas' disease caused 0.03% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 2 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Bolivia, 104
  2. Ecuador, 54
  3. Guatemala, 50
  4. Brazil, 48
  5. Honduras, 44
  6. El Salvador, 43
  7. Nicaragua, 42
  8. Peru, 41
  9. Venezuela, 35
  10. Jamaica, 17

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A9b Chagas' disease U023

ICD-9 codes: 086.0, 086.1, 086.2, 086.9

ICD-10 codes: B57

Subsection I:A9c.

Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)

GBD U024

Worldmapper deaths Map 393

Schistosomiasis is also called bilharzia. It is a chronic conditions caused by small flatworms (flukes) that live inside blood vessels where they lay hundreds of eggs a day. The fluke's eggs are eventually passed out in faeces or urine. They hatch in fresh water and then enter the right kind of snail. Inside the snail they develop to a further stage which is released back into the water and that subsequently can enter a person through the skin. The initial illness is due to an allergic reaction to these parasites. Within 1 to 3 months they develop into adult flukes inside the liver which then find places in the body to lay their eggs. The eggs can damage the liver or bladder and sometimes other organs. The adult flukes can live for 20 years. Treatment to kill them is usually effective if started early.

Prevention is by improved hygiene and not swimming or bathing in water where there are infected snails.

Parasite is a term for all organisms larger than bacteria and viruses that can cause disease by living inside a person, animal or plant. After malaria, Schistosomiasis is probably the most serious worldwide human parasite infection, affecting about 200 million people.

Schistosomiasis caused 0.08% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 7 deaths per million people. But that is only death directly from schistosomiasis, and does not include estimates of deaths that may be due to schistosomiasis from subsequent bladder cancer U074 Map 432, cirrhosis of the liver U117 Map 462, or colon cancer UO64 Map 422.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 124
  2. Niger, 123
  3. Angola, 116
  4. Egypt, 113
  5. Mozambique, 112
  6. Guinea-Bissau, 70
  7. Malawi, 68
  8. Ethiopia, 68
  9. Mali, 65
  10. Ghana, 65

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A9c Schistosomiasis U024

ICD-9 codes: 120

ICD-10 codes: B65

Subsection I:A9d.

Leishmaniasis

GBD U025

Worldmapper deaths Map 394

Leishmaniasis is an infection with microscopic single celled animals (flagellate protozoa of the genus Leishmania).

These parasites are spread by the saliva of bloodsucking sandflies. They can infect various animals with backbones (vertebrates) such as humans, rodents and dogs. These animals can in turn infect other sandflies when sucking their blood.

The infection can cause sores on the skin (cutaneous leishmaniasis) which can take months to heal and is a major health problem probably affecting over 300,000 people at any time. Another form (espundia) which occurs in the Americas, can affect the inside of the mouth and throat years after the initial skin lesion has healed. A third form (kalar-azar), affects internal organs, and is usually fatal if not treated.

Leishmaniasis caused 0.09% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 8 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 89
  2. Papua New Guinea, 53
  3. Nepal, 43
  4. India, 33
  5. Pakistan, 30
  6. Ethiopia, 25
  7. Mali, 23
  8. United Republic of Tanzania, 21
  9. Sierra Leone, 21
  10. Guinea-Bissau, 20

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A9d Leishmaniasis U025

ICD-9 codes: 085

ICD-10 codes: B55

Subsection I:A9e

Elephantiasis (Lymphatic filariasis)

GBD U026

Worldmapper deaths Map 395

Lymphatic filariasis, which can cause elephantiasis, is an infectious disorder caused by threadlike worms (filariae). Spread by blood-sucking mosquitoes, the infective larvae take about a year to develop inside humans into adult worms. They live in the lymph glands and lymphatic vessels, especially those draining the genital area and legs. Untreated, this disease can cause massive swelling of the legs called elephantiasis because the leg of an affected person can resemble an elephant's leg. In men it can also cause a large collection of fluid (a hydrocele), in the scrotum. The adult worms also cause allergic reactions and give birth to embryos which migrate to near the skin. From there they pass into mosquitoes mixed up with their bloody meal.

Prevention is by avoiding being bitten by, and by eradicating the mosquitoe carriers.

Lymphatic filariasis caused only 0.0007% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or an average of 1 death per 10 million people, but is included here because of the chronic disability it causes.

The highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Burkina Faso, 14
  2. Guyana, 4
  3. Trinidad and Tobago, 1

There were a few deaths in 34 other territories.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A9e Lymphatic filariasis U026

ICD-9 codes: 125.0, 125.1

ICD-10 codes: B74.0-B74.2

Subsection I:A9f.

River blindness (Onchocerciasis)

GBD U027

No worldmapper map

Onchocerciasis or River Blindness is an infection with threadlike worms of the genus Onchocerca, which cause skin lesions and infect the eyes. It is spread to humans by the bite of a black fly (Simulium species) which breeds on rivers. It eventually causes blindness (river blindness). Twenty years ago, in some communities in tropical Africa and tropical America 70% of the population had been infected, with 40% of those over 50 years being blind. In the early 1990s WHO estimated the prevalence of blindness due to onchocerciasis. It was endemic in 36 territories. The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in Western African territories and the introduction of population wide administration of a drug (ivermectin) in other endemic areas, dramatically reduced the prevalence of onchocerciasis and the amount of blindness from it in all 36 territories.

Virtually no deaths directly due to it worldwide in 2002, and therefore deaths are not mapped. It is included here because the disease is a major cause of blindness where it is endemic. However, deaths due to accidents due to blindness are not counted here, but are included within Unintentional injuries U149 Map 474.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A9f Onchocerciasis U027

ICD-9 codes: 125.3

ICD-10 codes: B73

Section I:A10.

Leprosy

GBD U028

Worldmapper deaths Map 396

Leprosy is a chronic mildly contageous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a bacteria similar to that which causes tuberculosis. Leprosy affects about 12 million people in low lying, humid, tropical and subtropical areas found near the equator.

Leprosy causes skin lesions and superficial nerve damage with areas of numbness. Together these can result in deformity and loss of fingers and toes. Like tuberculosis drug treatment has to be prolonged and is complicated. Leprosy rarely causes death but untreated it causes much disability.

Leprosy caused 0.011% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 1 death per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Suriname, 44
  2. Malaysia, 12
  3. Thailand, 9
  4. Zambia, 5
  5. Guinea-Bissau, 5
  6. Viet Nam, 4
  7. Sierra Leone, 4
  8. Mozambique, 4
  9. Pakistan, 3
  10. Sao Tome and Principe, 3

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A10 Leprosy U028

ICD-9 codes: 030

ICD-10 codes: A30

Section I:A11.

Dengue (Breakbone Fever)

GBD U029

Worldmapper deaths Map 397

Dengue or breakbone fever (dandy-fever) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by viruses of the family Flaviviridae. The mosquito, often the same type that causes Yellow Fever, becomes infected from biting a person who is in the first 3 days of suffering the illness. The mosquito can then spread the virus in its saliva to other people when they get bitten. The disease causes an acute illness with fever, weakness and pains. The joint and back pains give it the common name "breakbone fever". It can be fatal when it causes widespread bleeding. There is no specific treatment, and control depends on mosquito control measures, including destroying the carrier mosquitoes' breeding grounds.

Dengue caused 0.03% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 3 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Haiti, 122
  2. Suriname, 71
  3. Thailand, 40
  4. Philippines, 39
  5. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 33
  6. Bhutan, 29
  7. Dominican Republic, 27
  8. Honduras, 17
  9. Myanmar,17
  10. Nicaragua, 15

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A11 Dengue U029

ICD-9 codes: 061

ICD-10 codes: A90-A91

Section I:A12.

Japanese encephalitis

GBD U030

Worldmapper deaths Map 398

A mosquito-borne infection caused by the Japanese Encephalitis virus. Domestic pigs and wild birds can carry the virus, which occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and Eastern Asia. Most infected people have no symptoms. In about 1 in 250 cases the virus infects the brain. The illness starts with a fever and headache. If the brain gets infected there may be convulsions (epileptic fits), paralysis (hemiparesis) and mental slowing which often leads to unconsciousness (coma). It is more often fatal in children. If not fatal it can cause long term brain damage. Territories which have had major epidemics in the past include China, Republic of Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Thailand. They have controlled it largely by widespread vaccination. The first vaccine was produced in Japan in the 1930s. The vaccine is expensive, which means that poorer countries have not been able to afford to include it in routine immunisation programmes.

Japanese encephalitis caused 0.02% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 2 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 23
  2. Pakistan, 16
  3. Timor-Leste, 13
  4. Bhutan, 11
  5. Papua New Guinea, 10
  6. Myanmar, 7
  7. Cambodia, 7
  8. Nepal, 7
  9. India, 7
  10. Maldives, 7

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A12 Japanese encephalitis U030

ICD-9 codes: 062.0

ICD-10 codes: A83.0

Section I:A13.

Trachoma eye infection

GBD U031

Worldmapper children affected Map 234

Trachoma is caused by a bacteria, Chlamydia trachomitis, that infects the eyes. It is spread by towels, fingers and flies, typically where it is hot, dry and dusty and the people are poor and living near their cattle. 400 million people are affected, of whom 100 million are children. Untreated, trachoma commonly results in blindness. Good water, good sanitation and regularly washing faces reduces the spread. The prevalence of blinding trachoma declines with general improvement in health and socio-economic status even without a specific trachoma control programme. Treatment of individual cases lasts 6 weeks, and where endemic the whole population can be treated less intensively with antibiotic eye ointment twice a day for 5 days each month for 6 months. Low vision and blindness caused by scarring may need surgery to correct, but such surgery is rarely available where the disease is common.

Trachoma caused under 0.0003% of all deaths worldwide in 2002. It is included here because of the chronic disability it causes. Deaths due to accidents due to blindness are counted within unintentional injuries U149 Map 474.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A13 Trachoma U031

ICD-9 codes: 076

ICD-10 codes: A71

Section I:A14.

Intestinal (nematode) worm infections

GBD U032

Worldmapper deaths Map 399

Intestinal nematode infections are caused by nematode worms which at some stage in their sometimes complicated life cycles live as adult worms inside the human gut (intestine). They include (with their contribution to the total deaths from intestinal nematode infections in 2002):

  • a. Roundworm [Ascariasis] U033, Map 400, (29% of deaths).
  • b. Whipworm [Trichuriasis] U034, Map 401, (26% of deaths).
  • c. Hookworm disease (Ankylostomiasis and Uncinariasis) U035, Map 402, (25% of deaths).
  • d. other intestinal worm infections UO36 no map, (20% of deaths).

Intestinal nematode worm infections caused 0.02% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 2 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Guatemala, 94
  2. Nauru, 62
  3. Dominica, 30
  4. Timor-Leste, 24
  5. Cambodia, 22
  6. Solomon Islands, 20
  7. Sierra Leone, 18
  8. Ethiopia,17
  9. Mali, 15
  10. Papua New Guinea, 13

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A14 Intestinal nematode infections U032

ICD-9 codes: 126-129

ICD-10 codes: B76-B81

Subsection I:A14a.

Roundworms (Ascariasis)

GBD U033

Worldmapper deaths Map 400

Ascariasis is an infection caused by roundworms of the genus Ascaris (hence called Ascariasis) which occur worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides looks like a garden earthworm. Eggs get ingested from soil contaminated with human faeces, either directly or from poorly washed raw vegetables. In a bad infection there are 20 or more worms passed in their faeces each time a person goes to toilet. Prolonged infection can delay the development of mental and motor skills in infants and temporarily impair the ability of school-age children to understand and learn. A tangle of worms can obstruct the gut and might even need surgery to be removed. There is an effective drug treatment. The spread of the infection and recurrent infection can be reduced by better hygiene, especially hand washing, and good sanitation.

Ascariasis caused 0.006% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 0.5 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Timor-Leste, 7
  2. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 7
  3. Guatemala, 6
  4. Ethiopia,5
  5. Sao Tome and Principe, 5
  6. Cambodia, 4
  7. Papua New Guinea, 4
  8. Swaziland, 4
  9. Honduras, 4
  10. Haiti, 3

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A14a Ascariasis U033

ICD-9 codes: 127.0

ICD-10 codes: B77

Subsection I:A14b.

Trichuriasis (Whipworms)

GBD U034

Worldmapper deaths Map 401

Trichuriasis is an intestinal infections caused by whipworms. Whipworms are small worms shaped like a whip, of the species Trichuris (hence Trichuriasis). In a bad infection there are 250 or more worms passed in their faeces each time a person goes to toilet.

Trichuriasis can cause persistent diarrhoea. Prolonged infection can delay the development of mental and motor skills in infants and temporarily impair the ability of school-age children to understand and learn. There is an effective drug treatment. The spread of infection and recurrence of infection can be reduced by better hygiene, especially hand washing, and good sanitation.

Trichuriasis caused 0.005% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 0.5 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Ethiopia, 4
  2. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 3
  3. Nigeria, 2
  4. Pakistan, 2
  5. Timor-Leste, 2
  6. India, 1
  7. Bhutan, 1
  8. Sierra Leone,1
  9. Papua New Guinea, 1
  10. Malawi, 1

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A14b Trichuriasis U034

ICD-9 codes: 127.3

ICD-10 codes: B79

Subsection I:A14c.

Hookworm disease (Ankylostomiasis and Uncinariasis)

GBD U035

Worldmapper deaths Map 402

Hookworms are tiny roundworms whose larvae can bore into the human skin. There are two types of hookworm that affect people, one type in the Eastern hemisphere (Ankylostoma duodenale causing ankylostomiasis) and the other in the Western hemisphere (Necator americanus causing uncinariasis). Both are acquired by direct skin penetration (usually of bare feet) from larvae in soil contaminated by human faeces. The larvae travel through the body to the lungs, then up towards the mouth and down into the upper intestine where they mature and can live by sucking blood. In a high intensity infection there are 80 or more worms passed in their faeces each time a person goes to toilet. Chronic infection is a major cause of shortage of blood (anaemia) because the adult worms live by sucking blood from inside the intestine. The blood shortage can sometimes be severe enough to cause heart failure. In infants development of mental and motor skills can be delayed. There is an effective drug treatment. The spread of infection and recurrence of infection can be reduced by good sanitation and wearing shoes.

Hookworm disease caused 0.005% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 0.5 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 13
  2. Mali, 13
  3. Ethiopia, 8
  4. Thailand, 8
  5. Zambia, 7
  6. Madagascar, 6
  7. Guinea, 6
  8. Malawi, 6
  9. Gabon, 6
  10. Democratic Republic of Congo, 5

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A14c Hookworm disease U035

ICD-9 codes: 126

ICD-10 codes: B76

Subsection I:A14d.

Other intestinal worm infections.

GBD U036

No worldmapper map

Other intestinal infections is a residual category of other intestinal nematode worm infections not included in any of the categories A14a, A14b and A14c but are included in A14 Intestinal nematode infections GBD U032 Map 399.

It includes Strongyloidiasis is a type of threadworm occurring especially in the tropics and subtropics. Most people recover completely, but increasing weakness from frequent watery and bloody diarrhoea is occassionally fatal. This condition probably causes the majority of deaths and disability in this category, which also includes other threadworms and pinworms and other intestinal nematode worms.

Non-nematode worm infections are not included here. Tapeworms (cestodes) are included within A15 Other infectious diseases U037 no map. The most prevalent condition caused by flukes (trematodes) is in A9d Schistosomiasis U024 Map 393.

Together the other intestinal worm infections included here caused 0.004% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 0.4 deaths per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Guatemala, 88
  2. Nauru, 62
  3. Dominica, 30 
  4. Solomon Islands, 20
  5. Cambodia, 18 
  6. Timor-Leste, 15
  7. St Vincent and the Grenadines, 12
  8. Federated States of Micronesia, 11
  9. Tuvalu, 10
  10. St Lucia, 8

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002, and the above figures were obtained by subtraction.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-A14d Other intestinal [worm] infections. U036

ICD-9 codes: 127.1, 127.2, 127.4-127.9, 128, 129

ICD-10 codes: B78, B80, B81

Section I:A15.

Other infectious diseases

GBD U037

No worldmapper map

Other infectious diseases is a residual category of infectious diseases included in Infectious and parasitic diseases U002 Map 372, but are not included in any of the specific categories U003 to U036. It covers 123 broad ICD-10 code categories (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - 10th Revision).

It is everything in Global Burden of Disease's category Class I-A, Infectious and parasitic diseases, not included within Sections A1 to A14. Some infections are not included anywhere in Class I-A. Respiratory infections all come in Class I-B, Respiratory infections U038 Map 403. Infections associated with maternal conditions are included in Class I-C, Maternal conditions U042 Map 407, in Sections C2, Maternal sepsis U044 and C5, Abortion U047. Infections acquired before or just after birth are included in Class I-D, Illnesses of the newborn U049 Map 408, in Section D3, Other perinatal conditions U053.

Illnesses in the Other infectious diseases category caused 3.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 294 deaths per million people per year. These deaths amount to 17% of all deaths in Class I-A.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-AF Other infectious diseases U037

ICD-9 codes: 003, 005, 020-027, 031, 034, 035, 038-041, 046-049, 050-054, 056-057, 060, 062.1-066, 070.0-070.1, 071-075, 077-079, 080-083, 087-088, 100-104, 110-118, 121-124, 125.2, 125.4, 125.5, 125.6, 125.7, 125.9, 130-136, 139, 323

ICD-10 codes: A02,A05,A20-A28,A31,A32,A38,A40-A49,A65-A70,A74-A79,A81,A82,A83.1-A83.9,A84-A89,A92-A99,B00-B04,B06-B15,B25-B49,B58-B60,B64,B66-B72,B74.3-B74.9,B75,B82-B89,B92-B99, G04

Class I:B.

Respiratory infections

GBD U038

Worldmapper deaths Map 403

Respiratory infections is the sum of conditions caused by (with their contribution to the total deaths within Respiratory infections in 2002):

  1. Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections], U039 Map 404, (98% of deaths).
  2. Infections of the nose and throat [Upper respiratory infections], U040 Map 405, (2% of deaths).
  3. Ear infections [Otitis media], U041 Map 406, (0.1% of deaths).

Respiratory infections caused 7.0% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 647 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Burkina Faso, 4074 
  2. Sierra Leone, 3750 
  3. Angola, 3628 
  4. Mali, 3091
  5. Niger, 3024
  6. Liberia, 2636
  7. Zambia, 2572 
  8. Chad, 2543
  9. Mauritania, 2487
  10. Afghanistan, 2474

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-B Respiratory infections U038

ICD-9 codes: 460-466, 480-487, 381-382

ICD-10 codes: J00-J06, J10-J18, J20-J22, H65-H66

Section I:B1.

Lower respiratory infections (Pneumonia)

GBD U039

Worldmapper deaths Map 404, influenza prevalence Map 238

Lower respiratory infections is a category that includes flu (influenza) and lung infections (pneumonia).

Influenza is an infection caused by an Influenza virus. It starts by affecting the upper respiratory tract and makes you generally ill with a fever. When fatal, it has usually progressed to also causing infection of the lower respiratory tract (pneumonia). Periodically there is a worldwide pandemic of influenza. One in 1918 probably killed 50 million people. Many of the extra deaths in an influenza epidemic are attributed to pneumonia and not specifically to influenza. For that reason it is included here within the Lower respiratory infection category, and not with Upper respiratory infections U040.

Pneumonia is an infection of the lung that can be caused by bacteria or viruses. Untreated, especially when caused by bacteria, it is often fatal. Antibiotics have dramatically reduced the number of deaths. Where appropriate treatment is available, death usually occurs only sometimes in the very young, the elderly, people with other diseases or problems such as from past smoking and/or alcoholism.

Infections can cause permanent damage to parts of the lungs, making you more prone to further infections, and impair overall lung function, making you short of breath. Pneumonia is common in the elderly and in people who are malnourished. It is also more common in people with chronic bronchitis U112, often due to smoking; and with lung damage due to working in dusty environments, especially those in mines.

In 2002 Pneumonia caused 16.8% of deaths in children under 15 years old, 2.2% of deaths in adults aged 15 to 59 years and 4.8% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 5), 3.3% of all deaths in rich territories, 3.7% of all deaths in poor territories and 10.0% of all deaths in very poor territories (table 4).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Pneumonia to cause 5.7% of all Male, 6.0% of all Female, 2.6% of all Poor territory and 8.5% of all Very poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Pneumonia caused 6.9% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average was 634 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Burkina Faso, 4016 
  2. Sierra Leone, 3584 
  3. Angola, 3563 
  4. Mali, 3015
  5. Niger, 2963
  6. Zambia, 2521 
  7. Chad, 2511
  8. Mauritania, 2460
  9. Liberia, 2458
  10. Malawi, 2444

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-B1 Lower respiratory infections U039

ICD-9 codes: 466, 480-487

ICD-10 codes: J10-J18, J20-J22

Section I:B2.

Nose and throat infections (Upper respiratory infections)

GBD U040

Worldmapper deaths Map 405

Upper respiratory infections include the common cold, tonsillitis and sore throats. In children a particular infection (epiglottitis), just above the windpipe can obstruct breathing and be fatal if a tube is not inserted down into the windpipe (trachea). Otherwise these very common illnesses are rarely serious unless the infection spreads to the lower respiratory tract.

Upper respiratory infections caused 0.13% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 12 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Greece, 216
  2. Liberia, 164 
  3. Sierra Leone, 150
  4. Guinea-Bissau, 129 
  5. Guatemala, 95
  6. Kyrgyzstan, 95
  7. Mali, 72
  8. Angola, 59
  9. Niger, 56
  10. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 55

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-B2 Upper respiratory infections U040

ICD-9 codes: 460-465

ICD-10 codes: J00-J06

Section I:B3.

Ear infections (Otitis media)

GBD U041

Worldmapper deaths Map 406

Otitis media is an infection inside the ear caused by a bacteria. Occurring mainly in children often after catching a cold, otitis media can cause earache and temporary deafness. Sometimes treatment with antibiotics is needed. Severe recurrent infections can permanently damage the hearing mechanism. Sometimes infection gets into the nearby bone (mastoiditis) and occasionally this is a cause of meningitis U017, which can be fatal.

Otitis media caused 0.0063% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 1 death per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 16
  2. Liberia, 13
  3. Guinea-Bissau, 10
  4. Haiti, 9
  5. Angola, 7
  6. Burkina Faso, 5
  7. Niger, 5
  8. Mozambique, 5
  9. Malawi, 4
  10. Sao Tome and Principe, 4

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-B3 Otitis media U041

ICD-9 codes: 381-382

ICD-10 codes: H65-H66

Class I:C.

Deaths of women from pregnancy (Maternal conditions)

GBD U042

Worldmapper deaths Map 407

Pregnancy and childbirth [Maternal conditions] are those conditions affecting women because they are pregnant, or from giving birth or shortly after, and a consequence of that.

They are the sum of:

  1. Bleeding [Maternal haemorrhage], U043 no map
  2. Infection [Maternal sepsis], U044 no map
  3. High blood pressure [Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy], U045 no map
  4. Difficulties giving birth [Obstructed labour], U046 no map
  5. Conditions due to abortions and miscarriages [Abortion], U047 no map
  6. Other conditions related to pregnancy, labour or immediately after [Other maternal conditions], U048 no map

Global Burden of Disease does not give the figures for these sub-categories in its 2002 data. They are described and defined individually below. However lack of satisfactory medical care before, during and giving birth (antenatal, maternity and postnatal services) increases the risks of disability and death from all these categories, as also does prior poor health in women.

In 2002 Maternal conditions caused 1.9% of all female deaths (table 3) and 3.2% of all deaths among all adults between ages 15 and 59 years (table 5).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Maternal conditions caused 3.3% of all years living with a disability, 6.4% of all female disability (table 6). GBD also estimated it to cause 4.7% of all Female and 3.1% of all Very poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Maternal conditions caused 0.9% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 82 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 955
  2. Angola, 856
  3. Afghanistan, 820
  4. Niger, 772
  5. Malawi, 721
  6. United Republic of Tanzania, 589
  7. Mali, 543
  8. Rwanda, 507
  9. Chad, 488
  10. Democratic Republic of Congo, 470

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-C Maternal conditions U042

ICD-9 codes: 630-676

ICD-10 codes: O00-O99

Section I:C1.

Maternal haemorrhage

GBD U043

No worldmapper map

Maternal Haemorrhage is bleeding from the womb (uterus) at any time during pregnancy, labour and after delivery of the placenta.

In early pregnancy bleeding can be from a miscarriage. Later it can be from a mal-positioned placenta. If it occurs immediately after the baby is born, it is called a postpartum haemorrhage.

If a large amount of blood is lost, it can make the mother's blood thin (anaemic) and her short of breath, or she might even need an immediate blood transfusion to prevent her death.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-C1 Maternal Haemorrhage U043

ICD-9 codes: 40, 641, 666

ICD-10 codes: O44-O46, O67, O72

Section I:C2.

Maternal sepsis

GBD U044

No worldmapper map

Sepsis means infection with bacteria. The main infection included here is one that occurs inside the womb (uterus) after the baby is born, called endometritis, which needs treatment with immediate antibiotics. Without treatment it is often fatal. If not treated promptly it can also cause infertility.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-C2 Maternal sepsis U044

ICD-9 codes: 670

ICD-10 codes: O85-O86

Section I:C3.

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

GBD U045

No worldmapper map

Pregnancy-induced high blood pressure is serious. It can end up causing generalised seizures (eclampsia), strokes, and liver, kidney and heart failure. It is a leading cause of maternal deaths and of death and disability in babies. Good antenatal care is essential to spot risks in time. Treatment initially consists of rest and sometimes drugs, but if this is not successful the only safe thing is to bring on the birth of the baby of the baby early, by operation (Caesarian section) if necessary.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-C3 Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy U045

ICD-9 codes: 645

ICD-10 codes: O10-O16

Section I:C4.

Obstructed labour

GBD U046

No worldmapper map

Obstructed labour is when the mother is trying to give birth (in labour), but the baby gets stuck, perhaps because the baby's head is large compared with the bones of the mother's birth passage. Delivery sometimes can be helped by using forceps or other mechanical assistance. If not, an operation (Caesarian section) will be necessary to extract the baby through a cut in the mothers womb and tummy. Very prolonged labours can cause complete exhaustion of the mother, and risk death of both mother and baby. If not fatal to the mother, she can be left with incontinence of faeces due to a hole between vagina and rectum (rectovaginal fistula), or incontinence of urine from a hole between the bladder and vagina. The baby can be brain damaged from a very prolonged labour.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-C4 Obstructed labour U046

ICD-9 codes: 660

ICD-10 codes: O64-O66

Section I:C5.

Abortion

GBD U047

No worldmapper map

Maternal deaths due to abortions and miscarriages are counted here. Deaths of fetuses are not included. Miscarriages are unintentionally loosing the baby before 24 weeks gestation. Often the cause is not known. Deliberate abortions are the termination of unwanted pregnancies. When done by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment lacking the necessary standards, these "unsafe abortions" carry high risks for the mother, of infection, damage to internal organs and subsequent failure to conceive (infertility). Deaths here are sometimes from miscarriages where no medical help is available, but mostly from unsafe illegal abortions. Therapeutic abortions carried out in legal well run establishments are extremely safe procedures for the mother. In territories where the sexually transmitted diseases Chlamydia U006 Map 376, and Gonorrhoea U007 Map 377, are common and medical services are poor, deaths from ectopic pregnancy (when the fetus starts to develop outside the womb) are significant. When there is an ectopic pregnancy the fetus usually cannot survive and an immediate operation is often needed to prevent the death of the mother from internal bleeding.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-C5 Abortion U047

ICD-9 codes: 630-639

ICD-10 codes: O00-O07

Section I:C6.

Other maternal conditions

GBD U048

No worldmapper map

Other maternal conditions is a residual category of all those conditions included in Maternal conditions U042 Map 407, but not included in any of the sub-categories U043 to U047.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-C6 Other maternal conditions U048

ICD-9 codes: 643-659, 661-665, 667-669, 671-676

ICD-10 codes: O20-O43,O47-O63,O68-O71,O73-O75,O87-O99

Class I:D.

Deaths of Babies from Childbirth (Perinatal conditions)

GBD U049

Worldmapper deaths Map 408

(Also see Worldmapper Stillbirths Map 259, Early neonatal mortality Map 260.)

Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] are those which occur in babies from the seventh month of pregnancy until the baby is a week old (the perinatal period). For death rates here, the conditions have to start in the perinatal period. Most conditions occur just before or just after birth, but occassionally the actual death occurs after the perinatal period. This is different from perinatal mortality (Stillbirths Map 259 and Early neonatal mortality (first week deaths) Map 260) which includes all deaths from e.g. Congenital anomalies U131 Map 471, which start earlier and e.g. Tetanus U016 Map 385, which also occurs at any age, provided that each death occurs in the perinatal period.

Illnesses of the newborn are the sum of the following (with their contribution to the total Perinatal conditions deaths in 2002):

1. Low birth weight, U050 Map 409, (52% of deaths).

2. Birth Injury related deaths [Birth asphyxia and birth trauma], U051 Map 410, (29% of deaths).

3. Other perinatal conditions, U052 no map, (19% of deaths).

Apart from causing death, perinatal conditions can cause lifelong disability, such as cerebral palsy (spastic paralysis).

In 2002 Birth problems caused 20.6% of deaths of children under age 15 years (table 5a), 3.6% of all deaths in poor territories and 6.6% of all deaths in very poor territories (table 4). Death rates per million people varied from over 2000 deaths in 4 territories, to under 200 in 90 territories and under 20 in 10 territories.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Birth problems caused 2.7% of all years spent living with a disability worldwide, 2.8% of all male and 2.6% of all female disability (table 6). GBD also estimated it to cause 6.9% of all Male, 6.2% of all Female, 5.9% of all Poor territory and 8.0% of all Very poor territory Burden of Disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Birth problems caused 4.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 396 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Afghanistan, 2703
  2. Sierra Leone, 2640 
  3. Niger, 2376
  4. Somalia, 2096
  5. Lao People's Democratic Republic,1679
  6. Mauritania,1544
  7. Mali, 1445
  8. Angola, 1442 
  9. Bhutan, 1378 
  10. Guinea, 1355

The ten lowest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  • Switzerland, 19
  • Monaco, 18
  • Belgium, 18
  • Slovenia, 18 
  • Cyprus, 16
  • Finland, 14
  • Sweden, 12
  • San Marino, 12
  • Singapore, 5 
  • Japan, 5 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-D Perinatal conditions U049

ICD-9 codes: 760-779 minus 771.3

ICD-10 codes: P00-P96

Section I:D1.

Low birth weight

GBD U050

Worldmapper deaths Map 409

Small or low birthweight babies weigh below about 2500 grammes at birth. The exact figure may be adjusted for ethnic variations. Low birthweight can be due to the baby being born early (prematurity) or the baby can be growth retarded (small for the period it has been in the womb).

Causes and associations include illnesses in the mother, her smoking, her poverty and her malnutrition. Multiple pregnancies (twins etc.) also causes lower birthweights. The lower the birthweight, the higher the need for skilled medical help for the baby to survive.

The following problems can be caused by low birthweight:

Cerebral palsy where there is paralysis affecting use of arms, legs and muscles used in speech

Brain damage can also impair learning ability (mental retardation) or cause fits (epilepsy) or deafness.

Eye problems can cause blindness.

Low birth weight caused 2.22% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 204 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Afghanistan, 1493
  2. Sierra Leone, 1138 
  3. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 1079
  4. Niger, 1024
  5. Bhutan, 981
  6. Somalia, 904 
  7. Mauritania, 666
  8. Mali, 623
  9. Angola, 622
  10. Nepal, 608 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-D1 Low birth weight U050

ICD-9 codes: 764-765

ICD-10 codes: P05-P07

Section I:D2.

Birth Injury (Birth asphyxia and birth trauma)

GBD U051

Worldmapper deaths Map 410

Before birth a baby gets oxygen from its mother's placenta via the blood in the umbilical cord. After birth it gets oxygen from its own lungs by breathing. Difficulties during labour can cause a delay between the umbilical cord oxygen supply stopping and breathing starting. The baby then becomes short of oxygen (birth asphyxia). This can be immediately fatal. If not fatal, birth asphyxia can cause brain damage resulting in poor control of some muscles including in the arms, the legs and muscles used in speech (cerebral palsy or spastic paralysis). Brain damage can also impair learning ability (mental retardation) or cause fits (epilepsy) or deafness. Eye problems can cause blindness.

Birth trauma are injuries to the baby that occur during the process of birth. These can also cause brain damage by causing bleeding inside the skull and from skull fractures. The brain damage can be fatal or cause cerebral palsy (spastic paresis).

Birth asphyxia and birth trauma caused 1.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 116 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 1088
  2. Niger, 979
  3. Somalia, 864 
  4. Afghanistan, 749
  5. Mauritania, 636
  6. Mali, 595
  7. Angola, 595
  8. Guinea, 559
  9. Ethiopia, 513
  10. Liberia, 493

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-D2 Birth asphyxia and birth trauma U051

ICD-9 codes: 767-770

ICD-10 codes: P03, P10-P15, P20-P29

Section I:D3.

Other perinatal conditions

GBD U052

No worldmapper map

Other perinatal conditions is a residual category for all those conditions included in Deaths of Babies from Childbirth (Perinatal conditions) U049 Map 408, but not included in the two sub-categories U050 and U051.

Other perinatal conditions caused 0.8% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 75 deaths per million people per year.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-D3 Other perinatal conditions U052

ICD-9 codes: 760-763, 766, 771 (minus 771.3), 772-779

ICD-10 codes: P00-P02, P04, P08, P35-P96

Class I:E.

Nutritional deficiencies (Nutrition : Sustenance)

GBD U053

Worldmapper deaths Map 411

Nutritional deficiencies are due to inadequate amounts of particular categories of food and nutrients in what you have to eat and drink. All of the conditions here involve essential nutrients without which you cannot survive. You need large amounts of protein and carbohydrates, and small amounts of minerals and vitamins. Fats are essential to obtain some vitamins from food. Nutritional deficiencies are the sum of the following (with their contribution to the total nutritional deficiency deaths in 2002):

  1. Starvation [Protein-energy malnutrition], U054 Map 412, (54% of deaths).
  2. Iodine deficiency, U055 Map 413, (1% of deaths).
  3. Vitamin A deficiency, U056 Map 414, (5% of deaths).
  4. Iron-deficiency anaemia, U057 Map 415, (28% of deaths).
  5. Other nutritional disorders, U058 Map 416, (12% of deaths).

Nutritional deficiencies caused 0.85% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 78 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sao Tome and Principe, 845
  2. Mali, 834
  3. Sierra Leone, 713
  4. Angola, 694
  5. Liberia, 621 
  6. Haiti, 619
  7. Afghanistan, 454
  8. Guinea-Bissau, 422 
  9. Burkina Faso, 365
  10. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 360

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-E Nutritional deficiencies U053

ICD-9 codes: 243, 260-269, 280-281, 285.9

ICD-10 codes: D50-D53,D64.9, E00-E02, E40-E46, E50-E64

Section I:E1.

Starvation (Protein-energy malnutrition)

GBD U054

Worldmapper deaths Map 412

Protein-energy malnutrition is a basic lack of food (from famine) and a major cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide.

Starvation is called protein-energy malnutrition because the two most essential things food provides are protein and energy. When primarily a lack of protein in the food, the illness caused in children is called kwashiorkor. When the food supply does not provide enough energy (calories), the illness caused is called marasmus.

In marasmus there is extreme thinness (wasting), especially of the arms. In kwashiorkor you don't look so thin, partly because the body retains more fluid, but you stop growing (stunting).

Both can occur together. In both you often have a swollen tummy (distended abdomen due to fluid or gases), reduced resistance to infection, impaired learning ability (mental retardation) and are short (stunted growth). This can limit both physical and mental ability to perform many activities.

Adults are also severely affected in famines by protein-energy malnutrition, but the children usually start dying first.

Protein-energy malnutrition caused 0.46% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 42 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Mali, 647
  2. Angola, 621
  3. Sierra Leone, 359
  4. Afghanistan, 318
  5. Swaziland, 265
  6. Ethiopia, 246
  7. Zimbabwe, 239
  8. Malawi, 220
  9. Madagascar, 208
  10. United Republic of Tanzania, 206 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-E1 Protein-energy malnutrition U054

ICD-9 codes: 260-263

ICD-10 codes: E40-E46

Section I:E2.

Iodine deficiency

GBD U055

Worldmapper deaths Map 413

Iodine is essential for the thyroid gland to produce its hormone, thyroxine. People lacking thyroxine become sluggish, mentally and physically. An infant suffering from a shortage of thyroxine is called a cretin. Cretinism (congenital hypothyroidism) can cause stunted growth, severe mental impairment, deafness or even deaf-mutism, and paralysis.

In adults one of the first signs of iodine deficiency is a swelling in the neck of the thyroid gland (goitre).

Iodine occurs naturally in seafoods and can be artificially added to food products. Cases here are all due to iodine deficiency in the diet. Other causes for a failure to be able to produce thyroxine hormone are included within endocrine disorders, U080 Map 437.

Iodine deficiency caused 0.011% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 1 death per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sao Tome and Principe, 24
  2. Ethiopia, 14 
  3. Somalia, 14
  4. Jordan, 11
  5. Pakistan, 11 
  6. Rwanda, 11
  7. Liberia. 10
  8. Malawi, 10
  9. Sierra Leone, 9
  10. Guinea-Bissau, 9 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-E2 Iodine deficiency U055

ICD-9 codes: 243

ICD-10 codes: E00-E02

Section I:E3.

Vitamin A deficiency

GBD U056

Worldmapper deaths Map 414

Vitamin A deficiency is a major cause of blindness in the tropics. The first effect of vitamin A deficiency is difficulty seeing in the dark (night blindness), but persistent severe deficiency, especially in malnourished children, causes a lack of tears, the eyes then become infected and then ulcerated. The sufferer can eventually become blind. Vitamin A is in all animal livers and in many milk products. Carotenes, in carrots and other yellow and green leafy vegetables, is converted to vitamin A in the body. Babies weaned early onto vitamin A deficient milk products, and toddlers whose diet is deficient in vegetables are at risk. Fish liver oil (cod and halibut) can be used to prevent vitamin A deficiency. However excessive amounts of vitamin A can be harmful.

Vitamin A deficiency caused 0.040% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 4 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Liberia, 231 
  2. Sierra Leone, 200
  3. Guinea-Bissau, 189 
  4. Mali, 158
  5. Sao Tome and Principe, 105
  6. Niger, 85
  7. Burkina Faso, 74
  8. Rwanda, 64
  9. Malawi, 61
  10. Gambia, 60 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-E3 Vitamin A deficiency U056

ICD-9 codes: 264

ICD-10 codes: E50

Section I:E4.

Iron-deficiency anaemia (Iron deficiency)

GBD U057

Worldmapper deaths Map 415

Iron-deficiency anaemia (anemia) is the commonest form of anaemia (shortage of blood). Specifically it is a shortage of haemoglobin, the red pigment in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The shortage makes you short of breath and feel weak and exhausted. When severe it can cause heart failure. In infants it can cause delayed mental development and impaired performance on language skills and motor skills, including co-ordination. It can reduce children's learning and thinking ability (cognitive impairment).

Iron is needed by everyone to make haemoglobin. You need more iron if you growing rapidly, pregnant, or loosing blood. Iron-deficiency anaemia occurs in many illnesses and in women from bleeding with heavy periods (menstruation).

Most of the iron in food is in a form that is poorly absorbed, but the iron in meat is absorbed better than that from plants. Individually iron-deficiency anaemia is caused by the persons particularly high need for iron, but territorially it is caused by the levels of dietary iron and lack treatment with iron supplements. In rich countries, some food products have added iron content. Good antenatal care includes giving iron supplements when needed.

Iron-deficiency anaemia caused 0.24% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 22 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sao Tome and Principe, 502
  2. Haiti, 404
  3. Liberia, 155 
  4. Guyana, 149
  5. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 143
  6. Sierra Leone, 134
  7. Seychelles, 130
  8. Guinea-Bissau, 127 
  9. Kiribati, 117
  10. Antigua and Barbuda, 110

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-E4 Iron-deficiency anaemia U057

ICD-9 codes: 280, 285.9

ICD-10 codes: D50, D64.9

Section I:E5.

Other nutritional disorders

GBD U058

Worldmapper deaths Map 416

Other nutritional disorders are those due to vitamin and mineral deficiencies, but excluding Vitamin A Deficiency U055 Map 413, and Iron Deficiency Anaemia U056 Map 414, and Iodine Deficiency U057 Map 415. It includes anaemia due to vitamin B12 and Folic acid (Folate) deficiency. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency causes Beri-beri, Niacin (Nicotinic acid and Nicotinamide) deficiency causes Pellagra, Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) deficiency causes Scurvy, Vitamin D deficiency causes Rickets. Mineral deficiencies include Calcium, Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Magnesium, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum and Vanadium deficiencies. Also included are Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiencies. Altogether they caused 12% of the deaths included in Nutritional deficiencies U053 Map 411.

Other nutritional disorders caused 0.10% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 9 deaths per million people per year.

Global Burden of Disease did not give specific data for this residual category in 2002, and the figures were calculated from the data for the other categories.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category I-E5 Other nutritional disorders U058

ICD-9 codes: 265-269, 281

ICD-10 codes: D51-D53, E51-E64

Group II:.

Non-communicable illnesses

GBD U059

Worldmapper deaths Map 417

Diseases that cannot be passed from person to person are called noncommunicable. These are diseases not directly due to infections, pregnancy and childbirth, or dietary deficiencies.

Included here, with the relative percentages of deaths in this group, Noncommunicable diseases, are

  • A. Cancer [Malignant neoplasms] U060 Map 418, (21% of deaths).
  • B. Other tumours [Non-malignant neoplasms] U078 Map 435, (0.4% of deaths).
  • C. Diabetes mellitus U079 Map 436, (3% of deaths,).
  • D. Other Endocrine and other disorders U080 Map 437, (1% of deaths).
  • E. Brain disorders [Neuropsychiatric conditions excluding suicide] U081 Map 438, (3% of deaths).
  • F. Eye and Ear disease [Sense organ diseases] U098 Map 449, (0.01% of deaths).
  • G. Diseases of the heart and of arteries [Cardiovascular diseases] U104 Map 451, (50% of deaths).
  • H. Chronic bronchitis and asthma [Respiratory diseases] U111 Map 457, (11% of deaths).
  • I. Peptic ulcer etc [Digestive tract diseases], U115 Map 460, (6% of deaths).
  • J. Kidney disease etc [Genitourinary tract diseases] U120 Map 464, (3% of deaths).
  • K. Skin diseases U124 Map 467, (0.2% of deaths).
  • L. Diseases of muscles, bones and joints [Musculoskeletal diseases] U125 Map 467, (0.3% of deaths).
  • M. Birth defects [Congenital anomalies] U131 Map 471, (1% of deaths).
  • N. Mouth and teeth problems [Dental conditions] U143 Map 472, (0.005% of deaths).

Note that all of the sections usually exclude any conditions directly due to infection, and all conditions due to cancer are put in section A and excluded from all the other sections.

Non-communicable diseases caused 59% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 5387 deaths per million people per year. 50% of those deaths were due to cardivascular disease U104, and 21 % due to cancer U078.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Ukraine, 13890
  2. Russian Federation, 13553
  3. Bulgaria, 12558
  4. Latvia, 12308
  5. Belarus, 12285
  6. Estonia, 11512
  7. Hungary, 11228
  8. Georgia, 11038
  9. Serbia and Montenegro, 10715
  10. Romania, 10393 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II Noncommunicable diseases U059

ICD-9 codes: 140-242, 244-259, 270-279 (minus 279.5),282-285 (minus 285.9), 286-319, 324-380, 383-459, 470-478, 490-611, 617-629, 680-759

ICD-10 codes: C00-C97, D00-D48,D55-D64 (minus D 64.9) D65-D89, E03-E07, E10-E16,E20-E34, E65-E88, F01-F99, G06-G98, H00-H61, H68-H93, I00-I99, J30-J98, K00-K92, N00-N64, N75-N98, L00-L98, M00-M99, Q00-Q99

Class II:A.

All cancer (Malignant neoplasms)

GBD U060

Worldmapper deaths Map 418

Malignant neoplasms are different types of cancer. Cancer is not one disease but a group of over 100 diseases that have in common the uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal cells. The human body is made up of billions of cells of many types. In a particular cancer there will be a particular type of abnormal cell. Usually cancers start with a localized tumour or swelling consisting of abnormal cells, which increases in size and spreads. Further tumours can appear away from the original site; these are called metastases. Most untreated cancers cause death within months or a few years of diagnosis. Treatment is sometimes completely successful (when there are no live cancers cells remaining), sometimes prolongs life by a number of years, sometimes just eases particular symptoms (which may be its purpose), or sometimes turns out to be ineffective in a particular case. There is often a much better chance of successful treatment if treatment is started when a cancer is still small and before it has spread anywhere (no metastases).

Cancers are allocated in the Global Burden of Disease data to 16 sections by site of origin, U061 to U076 Maps 419 to 434. A 17th section (other malignant neoplasm) covers all other sites of origin, U077.

Sometimes cancer is only diagnosed after the cancer has spread. When the origin (primary site) is not known, the deaths have been allocated within each age-sex group on a pro-rata basis to one of the first 16 seactions. Thus they are allocated to what are thought to be the most likely primary sites.

Different types of cancer vary in how they spread, how quickly they spread and how they respond to different treatments. These variations occur within the categories here, as well as between the categories.

Specific causes for cancers are often not known. Some environmental factors (occupation and where and how you live) and genetic factors are known to increase the incidence of particular types of cancer. Smoking tobacco is known to increase the incidence of many types of cancer. Genetic factors used to just mean a family history of the disease, but recently specific genes are being identified as relevant both to the likelihood of getting a specific cancer and of likely response to specific treatments.

There are geographic differences in the incidence of certain types of cancer. Within territories there are differences between the sexes, various ethnic groups, different occupations, smokers and non smokers. There are many predisposing factors which alter the risks of getting particular cancers.

Many cancers, as they spread, cause you to loose weight (cachexia) and get gradually weaker. Specific symptoms (pain and loss of function) usually depend on the actual site of the original cancer and of the secondaries from it. Without treatment death often occurs months after the start of symptoms, with gradually increasing weakness and often pain.

The 17 categories (with the percentage of deaths attributed to each) are:

  1. Mouth cancer [Mouth and oropharynx cancers] U060 Map 419, (4% of deaths).
  2. Throat cancer [Oesophagus cancer] U061 Map 420, (6% of deaths).
  3. Stomach cancer U062 Map 421, (12% of deaths).
  4. Bowel cancer [Colon and rectum cancers] U063 Map 422, (9% of deaths).
  5. Liver cancer U064 Map 423, (9% of deaths).
  6. Pancreas cancer U065 Map 424, (3% of deaths).
  7. Lung cancer [Trachea, bronchus and lung cancers] U066 Map 425, (17% of deaths).
  8. Skin cancer [Melanoma and other skin cancers] U067 Map 426, (1% of deaths).
  9. Breast cancer U068 Map 427, (7% of deaths).
  10. Cancer of the cerxix [Cervix uteri cancer] U069 Map 428, (3% of deaths).
  11. Cancer of the uterus [Corpus uteri cancer] U070 Map 429, (1% of deaths).
  12. Ovary cancer U071 Map 430, (2% of deaths).
  13. Prostate cancer U072 Map 431, (4% of deaths).
  14. Bladder cancer U073 Map 432, (3% of deaths).
  15. Lymphomas [includes multiple myeloma] U074 Map 433, (5% of deaths).
  16. Leukaemia U076 Map 434, (4% of deaths).
  17. Other malignant neoplasms U077 no map, (10% of deaths).

Malignant neoplasms (cancers) caused 12% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 1144 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Hungary, 3136
  2. San Marino, 2941
  3. Denmark, 2940
  4. Croatia, 2775
  5. Czech Republic, 2773
  6. Belgium, 2753
  7. Italy, 2678
  8. Germany, 2642
  9. United Kingdom, 2561
  10. Latvia, 2533

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A Malignant neoplasms U060

ICD-9 codes: 140-208

ICD-10 codes: C00-C97

Section II:A1.

Mouth cancer (Mouth and oropharynx cancers)

GBD U061

Worldmapper deaths Map 419

There are many different cancers in this area. Cancers of the lips, mouth, tongue, tonsils, gums, cheek, the upper part of the throat (pharynx) and of the glands that produce saliva. Some cancers in this area are much more common in smokers and people who chew tobacco.

Mouth and oropharynx cancers caused 0.6% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 51 deaths per million people per year and 4% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Hungary, 172 
  2. Seychelles, 148
  3. Bangladesh, 120
  4. Slovakia, 119
  5. Grenada,116
  6. Papua New Guinea, 111
  7. India, 104
  8. Namibia, 102 
  9. Afghanistan, 101
  10. Slovenia, 99

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A1 Mouth and oropharynx cancers U061

ICD-9 codes: 140-149

ICD-10 codes: C00-C14

Section II:A2.

Throat cancer (Oesophagus cancer)

GBD U062

Worldmapper deaths Map 420

The oesophagus (gullet) is the tube by which food is taken from the mouth into the stomach. Cancers here are more common in heavy smokers and in people who have drunk a lot of alcohol. Tobacco contains many chemicals that encourage cancer (carcinogens) and alcohol damages normal cells. It especially affects men over 60 years old. The American English spelling is esophagus.

Cancers of the oesophagus caused 0.8% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 72 deaths per million people per year and 6% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Malawi, 210
  2. Mongolia, 192
  3. Nauru, 188
  4. China, 175
  5. Lesotho, 161 
  6. United Kingdom, 139
  7. Kazakhstan, 128
  8. Sao Tome and Principe, 119
  9. South Africa, 118
  10. Uruguay, 112

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A2 Oesophagus cancer U062

ICD-9 codes: 150

ICD-10 codes: C15

Section II:A3.

Stomach cancer

GBD U063

Worldmapper deaths Map 421

Cancers of the stomach (gastric cancer) mainly occur in people over 40 years old. They are more common in people with poor diets and high alcohol and tobacco consumption, especially men. It is also more common in people of blood group A due to genetic factors.

In 2002 Stomach cancer caused 2.1% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 5c), 1.7% of all deaths in rich territories and 3.1% of all deaths in poor territories with reasonable life expectancy (table 4). The incidence of stomach cancers has been falling in many rich territories over the past 50 years. It remains very high in Japan.

Cancers of the stomach caused 1.5% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 137 deaths per million people per year and 12% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. San Marino, 423
  2. Japan, 399
  3. China, 319
  4. Belarus, 316 
  5. Russian Federation, 309
  6. Republic of Korea (South Korea), 309 
  7. Portugal, 294
  8. Latvia, 280
  9. Mongolia, 265
  10. Ukraine, 258

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A3 Stomach cancer U063

ICD-9 codes: 151

ICD-10 codes: C16

Section II:A4.

Bowel cancer (Colon and rectum cancers)

GBD U064

Worldmapper deaths Map 422

Bowel cancer includes cancers of the large intestine (colon), the end part of the intestine (rectum) and its rear opening (anus).

Half of the people who develop colon and rectum cancers are over 70 years old, but where there is a family history of these cancers they are often under 50 years old when it starts. Other diseases within the bowel (polyps and ulcerative colitis) make these cancers more likely to occur.

In 2002 Bowel cancer caused 1.7% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 5c) and 2.6% of all deaths in rich territories (table 4a).

Bowel cancer caused 1.1% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 100 deaths per million people per year and 9% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Denmark, 463 
  2. Hungary, 463 
  3. Czech Republic, 450
  4. Norway, 414
  5. Germany, 393 
  6. Croatia, 365 
  7. Belgium, 337 
  8. Slovakia, 334
  9. Slovenia, 328
  10. United Kingdom, 328

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A4 Colon and rectum cancers U064

ICD-9 codes: 153, 154

ICD-10 codes: C18-C21

Section II:A5.

Liver cancer

GBD U065

Worldmapper deaths Map 423

The liver is a very large organ inside the abdomen that secretes bile, a fluid which helps the digestion of fats. The lver has many functions: processing the food we eat, storing some substances and removing some waste products from the blood, involved in blood clotting and controlling the volume of blood, etc. It is essential to life.

Many cancers can spread to the liver, particularly cancers of the stomach U063, colon U064, lung U067, breast U069 and uterus U071. This may have already happened when cancer is first diagnosed, and sometimes the site of the original cancer is not apparent. Counted here are only cancers that originate in the liver (primary hepatic cancer).

Hepatitis B U018 Map 387, and hepatitis C U019 Map 388, and also a mold that grows on rice and peanuts (aflatoxin) make people more likely to develop liver cancer. People who have developed permanent damage to the liver tissue (cirrhosis of the liver) are much more likely to get primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis of the liver can be caused by Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, alcohol and by some inherited conditions.

Cancer of the liver caused 1.1% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 99 deaths per million people per year and 9% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Mongolia, 627
  2. Gambia, 288
  3. Japan, 274
  4. Republic of Korea (South Korea), 269 
  5. China, 249
  6. Thailand, 225
  7. Greece, 186
  8. Italy, 183
  9. Albania, 176 
  10. Mali, 167

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A5 Liver cancer U065

ICD-9 codes: 155

ICD-10 codes: C22

Section II:A6.

Pancreas cancer

GBD U066

Worldmapper deaths Map 424

The pancreas is a large organ inside the abdomen that secretes juices that help digest food, and also produces the hormone insulin which regulates the sugar levels in yhe blood. Cancers of the pancreas occur particularly among men between ages 35 and 70 years and are over 3 times more common in smokers compared to non-smokers. It is possible that it is linked to chemicals that encourage cancers (carcinogens) that are breathed in or otherwise absorbed and then excreted by the pancreas. Tobacco contains many carcinogens.

Pancreas cancer caused 0.4% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 37 deaths per million people per year and 3% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sweden, 161
  2. Japan, 160
  3. Czech Republic, 159
  4. Hungary, 158 
  5. Denmark, 152 
  6. Austria, 151 
  7. Germany, 151 
  8. Finland, 146 
  9. Latvia, 143
  10. Italy, 140 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A6 Pancreas cancer U066

ICD-9 codes: 157

ICD-10 codes: C25

Section II:A7.

Lung cancer (Trachea, bronchus and lung cancers)

GBD U067

Worldmapper deaths Map 425

Lung cancer here includes all cancers of the lower respiratory tract which is made up of the windpipe (trachea), the tubes it divides into (bronchi) and the lungs. A major cause is cigarette smoking, but there are some varieties of lung cancer that are not associated with smoking. Other risk factors are exposure to dust containing asbestos, iron oxides, chromium or radioactivity.

In 2002 Lung cancer caused 3.2% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 5c), 4.5% of all deaths in rich territories and 2.8% of all deaths in poor territories with reasonable life expectancy (table 4).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Lung cancer to cause 2.4% of all Rich territory burden of disease (table 7c).

Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers caused 2.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 200 deaths per million people per year and 17% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Hungary, 763 
  2. Belgium, 698 
  3. San Marino, 646
  4. Denmark, 632 
  5. Croatia, 615 
  6. Poland, 591
  7. Greece, 572
  8. United Kingdom, 564
  9. Netherlands, 564
  10. Czech Republic, 560

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A7 Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers U067

ICD-9 codes: 162

ICD-10 codes: C33-C34

Section II:A8.

Skin cancer (Melanoma and other skin cancers)

GBD U068

Worldmapper deaths Map 426

Most types of skin cancers are rarely fatal because they rarely spread to other parts of the body. One type (melanoma) can spread rapidly to the liver, lungs and brain, and is often fatal. Melanoma is most common among fair skinned people who have been exposed to excessive sunlight. Depletion of the ozone layer in the upper atmoshere results in more ultraviolet light which damages the skin and promotes several types of skin cancer. Melanoma can occur on the skin of any part of the body, and at any age after puberty, but peaks between ages 50 to 70 years.

Skin cancers caused 0.12% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 11 deaths per million people per year and 1% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. New Zealand, 78
  2. Australia, 76
  3. Norway, 64
  4. Croatia, 60
  5. Denmark, 57
  6. Sweden, 51
  7. Slovenia, 50 
  8. Hungary, 50
  9. Czech Republic, 49 
  10. Latvia, 48 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A8 Melanoma and other skin cancers U068

ICD-9 codes: 172, 173

ICD-10 codes: C43-C44

Section II:A9.

Breast cancer

GBD U069

Worldmapper deaths Map 427

Cancers of the breast in women are common after the age of 35 years, and are more common if there is a family history of breast cancer (genetic factors). Cancers of the breast are more common in women who have not had any children before the age of 35 years. Being under age 20 years when first pregnant, having several pregnancies, and breast feeding all reduce the risk. Being overweight increases the risk. Cancer of the breast rarely occurs in men.

Breast cancer caused 0.8% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 77 deaths per million people per year and 7% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Denmark, 280 
  2. United Kingdom, 254
  3. Belgium, 251 
  4. Netherlands, 246
  5. Uruguay, 240 
  6. Germany, 239 
  7. Malta, 226
  8. Slovenia, 222
  9. Hungary, 222 
  10. Croatia, 216

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A9 Breast cancer U069

ICD-9 codes: 174, 175

ICD-10 codes: C50

Section II:A10.

Cancer of the cervix (Cervix uteri cancer)

GBD U070

Worldmapper deaths Map 428

The cervix is the neck of the womb (uterus) in women. Most cases of cancer of the cervix (cervix uteri cancer) are caused by a sexually transmitted virus (called the human papilloma virus, HPV). Other factors, like smoking, increase the risk of cancer developing. It most often affects women aged between 30 and 50 years. Regular screening (cervical/Pap smear) can often detect it at a very early stage. As with most cancers, if treatment is started at an early stage of the disease, it is more successful.

Cancer of the cervix caused 0.4% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 38 deaths per million people per year and 3% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Bolivia, 193 
  2. Haiti, 147
  3. Nauru, 132
  4. Swaziland, 131
  5. Lesotho, 120 
  6. Peru, 109
  7. Seychelles, 102
  8. Dominica, 98 
  9. Guinea, 97
  10. El Salvador, 96

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A10 Cervix uteri cancer U070

ICD-9 codes: 180

ICD-10 codes: C53

Section II:A11.

Cancer of the uterus (Corpus uteri cancer)

GBD U071

Worldmapper deaths Map 429

Cancer of the uterus refers to cancer of the main part of the womb (the body of the uterus) as opposed to cancer of the neck of the womb (Cancer of the cervix U070 Map 428). Most of these cancers are of the inner lining of the uterus called the endometrium. Cancer of the uterus mostly affect women aged 50 to 60 years and are rare before the age of 30 years. Cancers of the uterus are more common in women who are very overweight (obese), have Diabetes U079 Map 436, and women who have had no children.

Cancer of the uterus caused 0.12% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 11 deaths per million people per year and 1% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Grenada, 82
  2. Cuba, 60
  3. Latvia, 59
  4. Paraguay, 58 
  5. Lithuania, 55
  6. Georgia, 54
  7. Uruguay, 53
  8. Trinidad and Tobago, 50
  9. Argentina, 50
  10. Croatia, 50

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A11 Corpus uteri cancer U071

ICD-9 codes: 179, 182

ICD-10 codes: C54-C55

Section II:A12.

Ovary cancer

GBD U072

Worldmapper deaths Map 430

The two ovaries inside a woman are where her eggs develop. Cancer of the ovary occurs most often between the ages of 40 and 65 years, but can occur in younger women. It is much more common in some families than others. There are many different types of ovarian cancer. Many produce no symptoms until the disease produces excess fluid within the abdomen (ascites). Some types of ovarian cancer produce sex hormones, and it is the effects of these that are first noticed. Rare types of ovarian cancer occur in children.

Cancer of the ovary caused 0.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 22 deaths per million people per year and 2% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Estonia, 92
  2. Lithuania, 89
  3. Belgium, 80
  4. Latvia, 79
  5. Denmark, 79
  6. Czech Republic, 78 
  7. United Kingdom, 75 
  8. Germany, 73
  9. Croatia, 72
  10. Ukraine, 71

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A12 Ovary cancer U072

ICD-9 codes: 183

ICD-10 codes: C56

Section II:A13.

Prostate cancer

GBD U073

Worldmapper deaths Map 431

The prostate is a gland that only occurs in men, at the base of the bladder. Cancer of the prostate typically occurs in men aged over 40 years old. If cancer of the prostate starts at age 40 years, it tends to grow fast. The older a man is when he develops it, the slower it tends to grow. In elderly men it can be harmless.

Cancer of the prostate caused 0.5% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 43 deaths per million people per year and 4% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in: 

  1. Barbados, 347
  2. Antigua and Barbuda, 311 
  3. Sweden, 309
  4. Grenada, 300 
  5. Norway, 284
  6. Denmark, 232 
  7. Switzerland, 211
  8. St Vincent and the Grenadines, 209
  9. Belgium, 204
  10. Uraguay, 203

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A13 Prostate cancer U073

ICD-9 codes: 185

ICD-10 codes: C61

Section II:A14.

Bladder cancer

GBD U074

Worldmapper deaths Map 432

The bladder, in men and women, is the organ in which urine collects. Bladder cancers mostly affect people over 50 years old, and affect more men than women. There are many industries in which workers can be exposed to chemicals that increase the risk of bladder cancer perhaps 20 years later. These include rubber workers, aniline dye workers, petroleum workers and spray painters. Chemical dyes (Aromatic amines) are often responsible. Smokers are at increased risk because of the chemicals (carcinogens) in tobacco. Another condition that predisposes to bladder cancer is Schistosomiasis U024 Map 393.

Cancer of the bladder caused 0.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 29 deaths per million people per year and 3% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Denmark, 143 
  2. Egypt, 127
  3. San Marino, 120
  4. Greece, 119
  5. Spain, 108
  6. Norway, 102
  7. United Kingdom, 100
  8. Andorra, 98
  9. Cyprus, 96
  10. Italy, 96

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A14 Bladder cancer U074

ICD-9 codes: 188

ICD-10 codes: C67

Section II:A15.

Lymphomas (Lymphomas and multiple myeloma)

GBD U075

Worldmapper deaths Map 433

Lymph glands occur all over the body, connected by vessels in a system which drains lymph eventually into the blood stream. Lymph is a fluid containing containing white blood cells which can attack bacteria. The lymph glands help destroy harmful bacteria and rid the lymph of them. Lymphomas are cancers of cells in the lymph glands. The commonest type of lymphoma is called Hodgkin's disease which particularly occurs in young men, but also occurs in people over 50 years old. It is one of the cancers that used to be fatal but can often be cured by modern treatments where available. There are many other types of lymphoma. Treatment, when available, of lymphomas consists of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, with variable success.

Multiple myeloma is a cancer, probably related to lymphomas, of particular cells (antibody producing plasma cells) in the marrow that is inside bones (bone marrow). The bone marrow also produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which help in clotting. Multiple myeloma attacks the bones of people who get it. They are usually over 40 years old, with a peak at age 70 years. Treatment, where available, has limited vale, most patients dying within 2 years.

Lymphomas and myeloma caused 0.6% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 54 deaths per million people per year and 5% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. San Marino, 301
  2. Norway, 152
  3. Finland, 151 
  4. Sweden, 149
  5. Denmark, 146 
  6. Italy, 144
  7. United Kingdom, 143
  8. Netherlands, 140
  9. Canada, 140
  10. Australia, 138 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A15 Lymphomas and multiple myeloma U075

ICD-9 codes: 200-203

ICD-10 codes: C81-C90, C96

Section II:A16.

Leukaemia

GBD U076

Worldmapper deaths Map 434

Leukaemias are cancers of the cells in the bone marrow that produce the various types of white blood cell in the blood. When a person has leukaemia there is a large increase in the number of cells of a particular type in the bone marrow or in the blood. These cells do not function normally and provide no protection against infection. The other components of the bone marrow (red blood cells, platelets and normal white blood cells) get crowded out and are reduced in number. Different types of leukaemia affect different age groups. Exposure to radiation can cause some types.

The most common type in young children kills 90% of affected children within 6 months. However, in territories where treatment is now available, most children who are given treatment will improve for a time and over half are cured. Treatments are not as successful in adults.

Leukaemia caused 0.5% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 42 deaths per million people per year and 4% of all deaths from cancer.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Greece, 117
  2. San Marino, 115
  3. Denmark, 103 
  4. Belgium, 98
  5. Italy, 97
  6. Hungary, 96
  7. Germany, 93
  8. Israel, 92
  9. Czech Republic, 92 
  10. Grenada, 91

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A16 Leukaemia U076

ICD-9 codes: 204-208

ICD-10 codes: C91-C95

Section II:A17.

Other malignant neoplasms

GBD U077

No worldmapper map

Other malignant neoplasms is a residual category of all the many types of cancer that are not included in any of the 16 sections, U061 to U076, but included in All Cancers U060 Map 418.

These other malignant neoplasms altogether caused 1.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 122 deaths per million people per year and 2% of all deaths from cancer.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-A17 Other malignant neoplasms U077

ICD-9 codes: 152, 156, 158-161, 163-171,181, 184, 186-187,189-199

ICD-10 codes: C17,C23,C24,C26-C32, C37-C41,C45-C49, C51,C52,C57-C60,C62-C66,C68-C80,C97

Class II:B.

Other tumours (Benign neoplasms)

GBD U078

Worldmapper deaths Map 435

These are growths (neoplasms) which are not cancer and are called benign tumours to distinquish them from malignant tumours. Unlike cancer (malignant tumours U060 Map 418), they are made up of cells that are more similar to ordinary body cells, and they remain localised and do not spread. They are only life threatening if their position causes them to interfere with some vital function. Most benign tumours can be completely removed by surgery.

Other neoplasms (benign tumours) caused 0.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 24 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Italy, 124
  2. Sweden, 110
  3. Denmark, 107 
  4. Syrian Arab Republic, 104
  5. Albania, 101 
  6. Afghanistan, 94
  7. France, 92
  8. Lebanon, 90
  9. Spain, 84
  10. Islamic Republic of Iran, 84 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-B Other neoplasms U078

ICD-9 codes: 210-239

ICD-10 codes: D00-D48

Class II:C.

Diabetes (Diabetes mellitus)

GBD U079

Worldmapper deaths Map 436, prevalence Map 239

Diabetes is the inability to control the amount of sugar in the blood such that the level can go too high (hyperglycaemia). This makes you pass more urine (with sugar in it), thirsty and drowsy. At very high levels of blood sugar you can become unconscious (coma). Diabetes occurs when the body cannot produce enough of a hormone (insulin), and also when the body has a reduced response to the insulin that is produced. If not enough insulin is being produced (Type I diabetes), without insulin you die within months. Insulin was first isolated in 1921. If there is a reduced response to insulin (Type II diabetes) you do not have to be treated with insulin injections; blood sugar levels can sometimes be controlled just by diet and sometimes with tablets as well as diet. A problem of treatment is that it can sometimes cause the blood sugar to go too low (hypoglycaemia) which can also cause coma.

Apart from the day to day problems with the blood sugar level being unsatisfactory, people with both types of diabetes are prone to secondary problems (complications), which can be very disabling. Damage occurs to nerves and to blood vessels. You can get chronic or recurring ulcers on the feet and sometimes part of a leg has to be amputated. Eye disease caused by diabetes commonly causes blindness, and an important part of treatment is trying to prevent this. Having diabetes commonly also causes kidney damage which can lead to kidney failure.

Diabetes can cause or contribute to cardiovascular disease U104 Map 451, but deaths due to those conditions are counted separately.

In 2002 Diabetes caused 2.6% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 5c) and 1.8% of all deaths in rich territories (table 4a).

Diabetes caused 1.7% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 158 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Trinidad and Tobago, 1020
  2. Jamaica, 810 
  3. St Vincent and the Grenadines, 710
  4. Grenada, 634 
  5. Kiribati, 613
  6. St Lucia, 593
  7. Mexico, 548
  8. Antigua and Barbuda, 543 
  9. Dominica, 531
  10. Armenia, 507

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-C Diabetes mellitus U079

ICD-9 codes: 250

ICD-10 codes: E10-E14

Class II:D.

Endocrine and other disorders

GBD U080

Worldmapper deaths Map 437

Endocrine and other disorders includes some disorders of the endocrine glands but not diabetes mellitus, obesity and other excess intake disorders, some disorders of the blood, certain disorders involving the immune system and metabolic disorders.

The endocrine glands are organs in the body that produce hormones, special essential chemicals that control body functions. The main endocrine glands are the thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, pancreas, ovary in women and testes in men.

The pituitary gland, in the centre of the brain, produces many hormones, some control other endocrine glands, others like growth hormone, act directly on the body.

The disorders of thyroid gland included here are not due to dietary iodine deficiency U055 Map 413. Hormonal conditions causing the thyroid to be underactive (myxoedema) or overactive (thyrotoxicosis) are included.

The pancreas produces the hormone insulin. Underproduction causes Diabetes U079 Map 436, and is not included here. Overproduction of insulin (which causes the blood sugar level to be too low) and disorders of the internal secretions of the pancreas are included.

The ovary and the testes produce sex hormones. The adrenal glands on top of the kidneys, produce adrenaline and steroid hormones.

The main symtoms of the endocrine gland disorders are due to the effects of too much or too little of the hormones that the glands normally produce.

Cancer of any of the endocrine glands is not included, but come in Malignant neoplasms U060 Map 418 and the relevant sections of that class.

Shortage of blood (anaemia) due to Iron deficiency U057 Map 415, is not included. Many other causes of anaemia (Haemolytic anaemias, Aplastic and other anaemias) are included and other diseases of the blood and blood forming organs including bleeding disorders (Coagulation defects and other haemorrhagic conditions).

Metabolic disorders are often inherited conditions (genetic disorder) affecting an aspect of the body's chemistry from birth. There are many different metabolic disorders, but all are rare.

Endocrine disorders caused 0.4% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 39 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Antigua and Barbuda, 358
  2. Kiribati, 333
  3. Tuvalu, 262
  4. Dominica, 236
  5. Solomon Islands, 215
  6. Marshall Islands, 201
  7. Monaco, 183
  8. Federated States of Micronesia, 177
  9. Vanuatu, 149 
  10. Fiji, 148

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-D Endocrine disorders U080

ICD-9 codes: 240-242, 244-246, 251-259, 270-279 (minus 274, 279.5),282-285 (minus 285.9), 286-289

ICD-10 codes: D55-D64 (minus D64.9),D65-D89, E03-E07, E15-E16, E20-E34, E65-E88

Class II:E.

Brain disorders (Neuropsychiatric conditions)

GBD U081

Worldmapper deaths Map 438

These are mental illnesses (psychiatric disorders) and physical diseases of the brain (neurological disorders).Suicide is excluded here and counted in Suicide U157 Map 482 and so deaths here are mainly attributed to the neurological diseases. Included are (with proportion of deaths attributed directly to each category):

  1. Depression [Unipolar depressive disorders], U082 Map 439, (1% of deaths).
  2. Manic-depression [Bipolar disorder], U083 Map 440, (0.1% of deaths).
  3. Schizophrenia (psychiatric illness often with delusions), U084 Map 441, (2% of deaths).
  4. Fits [Epilepsy], U085 Map 442, (11% of deaths).
  5. Alcohol use disorders (mental and behavioral disorders caused by alcohol excess), U086 Map 443, (8% of deaths).
  6. Dementias (loss of memory and other mental powers), U087 Map 444, (36% of deaths).
  7. Parkinson's disease (neurological illness with trembling and shuffling), U088 Map 445, (9% of deaths).
  8. Multiple sclerosis (neurological illness affecting nerve fibres), U089 Map 446, (1% of deaths).
  9. Drug use disorders (mental and behavioral disorders caused by usually illegal drugs), U090 Map 447, (8% of deaths).
  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder (psychiatric illness following an awful experience), U091 Map 448, (0.01% of deaths).
  11. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (psychiatric illness with repetitive thoughts or acts), U092 no map, (no of deaths).
  12. Panic disorder (anxiety state), U093 no map, (no of deaths).
  13. Sleeping disorder [Primary insomnia], U094 no map, (no deaths).
  14. Migraine [Recurrent one-sided headaches], U095 no map, (no deaths).
  15. Mental Retardation due to lead exposure, U096 no map, (no deaths).
  16. Other neuropsychiatric disorders not included above, U097 no map, (24% of deaths).

Neuropsychiatric conditions caused 1.9% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 178 deaths per million people per year. Because deaths due to Suicide U157 Map 482, are counted separately, the mortality counted here is mainly from neurological disorders. The ten highest, all in Western Europe, are all dominated by deaths from dementia.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Finland, 942 
  2. Sweden, 779
  3. Switzerland, 727
  4. Andorra, 656 
  5. France, 621
  6. Denmark, 610 
  7. Belgium, 604 
  8. Spain, 573
  9. Iceland, 565 
  10. Norway, 552

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E Neuropsychiatric conditions U081

ICD-9 codes: 290-319, 324-359

ICD-10 codes: F01-F99, G06-G98

Section II:E1.

Depression (Unipolar depressive disorders)

GBD U082

Worldmapper deaths Map 439

Unipolar depressive disorders (depression or melancholia) are mental illnesses that affect your mood, but always to make it low and cause depression.

Depression is often a recurrent illness. You have periods lasting months or even years where your mood is so low that there is an overwhelming sense of hopelessness and worthlessness. Affecting women more than men, it is probably the greatest cause of disability worldwide, sufferers frequently referring to periods of illness as lost months or years of their life. Affecting women more than men, for women depression

A depressive illness not only affects your mood, but frequently also causes marked changes in appetite and sleep pattern, loss of energy, difficulty thinking and thoughts of suicide. Antidepressant medication has greatly reduced the periods of depression for many sufferers.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Depression to cause 11.8% of all years spent living with a disablity worldwide, 9.6% of all Male, 13.9% of all Female disability (table 6). GBD also estimated it to cause, 7.3% of all Rich territory, 6.0% of all Poor territory and 3.1% of all Very poor territory Burden of Disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Deaths due to Suicide U157 Map 482, most of which will be due to depression, are counted separately. Therefore the true mortality from depression is not shown in the mortality figures here. The few deaths recorded here may include people so severely depressed that they have stopped eating, and more importantly, drinking. Excluding deaths from suicide, depression caused 0.02% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 2 deaths per million people per year, compared to an average of 140 suicides per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. France, 16
  2. Sweden, 9
  3. Switzerland, 9
  4. India, 7
  5. Denmark, 6
  6. Norway, 6
  7. Bhutan, 5
  8. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 5
  9. Pakistan, 5
  10. Bangladesh, 5

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E1 Unipolar depressive disorders U082

ICD-9 codes: 296.1, 311

ICD-10 codes: F32-F33

Section II:E2.

Manic-depression (Bipolar affective disorder)

GBD U083

Worldmapper deaths Map 440

Bipolar affective disorder (manic-depression)is an illness with periods of unnaturally high mood and other periods of unnaturally low mood (episodes of mania and episodes of depression). Mania is a state of excessively elevated mood and excessive activity, sometimes accompanied with unjustified ideas of self-importance (grandiose delusions). Depression is an episode of very low mood with an overwhelming sense of hopelessness and worthlessness. Manic-depression affects men as much as women.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Manic-depression caused 2.5% of all years spent living with a disability worldwide, 2.5% of all male and 2.4% of all female disability (table 6).

Deaths due to Suicide U157 Map 482, some of which will be due to manic-depression, are counted separately. There is also an increased risk of Accidental death U149 Map 474, because in a state of mania, ability to assess risk is impaired. Therefore the true mortality from bipolar affective disorder is not shown in the figures here.

Excluding deaths from suicide and accident, Manic-depression caused 0.0013% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 1 death per 10 million people per year, compared to an average of 140 suicides per million people.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Denmark, 3.4 
  2. Iceland, 2.5 
  3. France, 2.4
  4. Norway, 1.4
  5. Switzerland, 1.4
  6. Sweden, 1.3
  7. New Zealand, 1.2
  8. Belgium, 0.9 
  9. Canada, 0.7
  10. Finland, 0.6

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E2 Bipolar affective disorder U083

ICD-9 codes: 296 (minus 296.1)

ICD-10 codes: F30-F31

Section II:E3.

Schizophrenia

GBD U084

Worldmapper deaths Map 441

Schizophrenia is a group of mental disorders which have in common an inability to distinquish reality from fantasy. It is a disorder of thinking, in which the person may see things which are not there (visual hallucinations) or hear imaginary voices (auditory hallucinations) and have bizarre unfounded beliefs (delusions). There is also a withdrawal from reality, the person living in their own fantasy world. Starting between ages 15 years and 45 years, about 1% of the population may suffer from an episode of schizophrenia lasting at least six months. Two thirds of those will have further episodes. With recurrent episodes your ability to cope in social situations tends to decline and you become more withdrawn.

Deaths due to Suicide U157 Map 482, some of which will be due to schizophrenia, are counted separately. There is also an increased risk of Accidental death U149 Map 474. Therefore the true mortality from schizophrenia is not shown in the figures here. The few deaths recorded here may include people living alone who put themselves at risk by their own self neglect.

Excluding deaths from suicide and accident, schizophrenia caused 0.04% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 4 deaths per million people per year, compared to an average of 140 suicides per million people.

Global Burden of Diseases estimated in 2002 Schizophrenia caused 2.8% of all years spent living with a disability worldwide, affecting men and women equally (table 6).

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Switzerland, 11
  2. India, 11
  3. Kyrgyzstan, 10
  4. Finland, 9
  5. Denmark, 9
  6. Bhutan, 8
  7. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 8
  8. Tuvalu, 7
  9. Pakistan, 7
  10. Myanmar, 7 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E3 Schizophrenia U084

ICD-9 codes: 295

ICD-10 codes: F20-F29

Section II:E4.

Epilepsy

GBD U085

Worldmapper deaths Map 442

Epilepsy is a tendency to have recurrent seizures (epileptic fits). Between 1 and 2 percent of the population have epilepsy. There are different types of epileptic fit, but a particular sufferer will usually have the same type of fit each time they have a fit. The frequency of fits can vary from once a year to many times a day. Most epileptic fits stop spontaneously within minutes. Occassionally prolonged fits occur (status epilepticus) with a risk of death or permanent brain damage. However death is more likely from an accident occurring because of an epileptic fit impairing consciousness than from the fit itself. For this reason epileptics in some territories are not allowed to drive and operate some other machinery unless the fits are prevented by treatment, usually regular tablets. Treatment can usually reduce the frequency of fits, but may not stop them completely.

Epilepsy caused 0.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 20 deaths per million people per year.

The highest rate of death in 2002 was 82 deaths per million people in Angola. In the data here, the whole of Africa has

exceptionally high rates of death due to epilepsy, which may refect the risks of lack of treatment rather than a higher prevalence of epilepsy.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Angola, 82
  2. Sierra Leone, 74
  3. Niger, 68
  4. Mali, 65
  5. Ethiopia, 65 
  6. Cote d'Ivoire, 65
  7. Nigeria, 64
  8. Somalia, 63
  9. Liberia, 62
  10. South Africa, 61 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E4 Epilepsy U085

ICD-9 codes: 345

ICD-10 codes: G40-G41

Section II:E5.

Alcohol use disorders (Alcohol)

GBD U086

Worldmapper deaths Map 443, alcohol consumption Map 240

Alcohol use disorders are mental illnesses and behavioral disorders due to addiction to or dependence on alcohol.

An alcoholic is someone whose repeated drinking affects his or her work or social life. Alcohol may be consumed everyday, often starting in the morning, or there may be recurrent episodes of excessive alcohol consumption (binge drinking).

50% of alcoholics have some liver damage. Alcohol can also damage the heart, the stomach, the pancreas, the brain and the fetus in a pregnant woman. Brain damage may be from recurrent head injuries from falls; from the direct effect of alcohol on the brain causing gradual deterioration in mental ability (atrophy of the cortex of the brain); or due to a particular vitamin deficiency (thiamine) caused by lack of food apart from alcoholic drinks. Thiamine deficiency can cause an acute disturbance in brain and nerve function (Wernicke's encephalopathy), which untreated can cause an incurable permanent severe memory disorder (Korsakoff's syndrome).

Many alcoholics get severe withdrawal symptoms if they stop drinking alcohol suddenly. They can become acutely ill, have seizures (fits) and hallucinations (delirium tremens). A common hallucination in withdrawal is thinking animals are crawling all over your body.

Alcohol use disorders were estimated in 2002 as causing 3.3% of all years spent living with a disability worldwide. For men the figure was 5.8%.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Alcohol caused worldwide 3.3% of all years spent living with a disability, 5.8% of all male disability (table 6). GBD also estimated it to cause 2.2% of all Male and 3.6% of all Rich territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Deaths due to alcohol are commonly from accidents while drunk, vomiting when drunk that enters the lungs causing pneumonia or immediate death, and directly from overdose causing coma and death. Many deaths of alcoholics occur from other illnesses that are wholly or in part caused by alcohol but get classified under other causes. Worldmapper 240 Alcohol consumption, probably give a reasonable picture of the world distribution of all deaths due to alcohol. Many deaths from Cirrhosis of the liver, U117 Map 462, are due to alcohol. Some Accidental deaths U149 Map 474, will be due to alcohol. People who abuse alcohol are also more likely to commit Suicide U157 Map 482. The deaths recorded in Alcohol use disorders are only a fraction of all the deaths that can be attributed mainly to alcohol use and abuse.

Deaths attributed to alcohol abuse disorders here accounted for 0.16% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 15 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. El Salvador, 165
  2. Antigua and Barbuda, 117 
  3. Denmark, 102 
  4. Latvia, 100
  5. Honduras, 76 
  6. Guatemala, 74
  7. Slovenia, 69 
  8. Germany, 62
  9. Russian Federation, 58
  10. France, 56 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E5 Alcohol use disorders U086

ICD-9 codes: 291, 303, 305.0

ICD-10 codes: F10

Section II:E6.

Dementia (Alzheimer's and other dementias)

GBD U087

Worldmapper deaths Map 444

Dementia is the loss of intellectual functions. Often it starts with difficulty remembering things (especially for recent events) and with difficulty thinking (reasoning), and slowly progresses to not knowing where you are, not recognising people you know, not being able to speak coherently or feed yourself. It is very rare below age 55 years, but gets more common as you get older, affecting 20% of people above age 80 years. A condition where brain damage can be seen under the microscope (Alzheimer's disease) is the most common form of dementia, especially when over 60 years old. Another cause is having recurrent small strokes (multi-infarct dementia) which stop small areas of the brain functioning due to lack of blood. Chronic alcohol abuse can also cause dementia. Death is often from infection, with the patient unable to describe symptoms or cooperate with treatment. On average death occurs six years after dementia is first obvious.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 dementia to cause 2.3% of all Rich territory burden of disease (table 7c).

Dementia caused 0.7% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 64 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Finland, 708 
  2. Sweden, 567
  3. Andorra, 500 
  4. Spain, 423
  5. Belgium, 407 
  6. Switzerland, 400
  7. Netherlands, 364
  8. Iceland, 351 
  9. Uruguay, 349 
  10. Canada, 341

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E6 Alzheimer's and other dementias U087

ICD-9 codes: 290, 330, 331

ICD-10 codes: F01, F03, G30-G31

Section II:E7.

Parkinson's disease

GBD U088

Worldmapper deaths Map 445

Parkinson's disease is a disease of some particular cells (dopaminergic neurones) in a small part of the brain (the substantia nigra) which help in making voluntary movements. It causes slowness of movement, rigidity and tremors. It usually starts between ages 60 and 70 years, can be helped by treatment but is usually gradually progressive, with increasing slowness and difficulty with movement. Death can be due to lung infection (pneumonia) or due to dementia.

Parkinson's disease caused 0.17% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 16 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Switzerland, 84
  2. Iceland, 84
  3. Norway, 71
  4. Luxembourg, 70
  5. France, 69
  6. Finland,65
  7. Denmark, 64
  8. United States, 60
  9. Kiribati, 58 
  10. Monaco, 56 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E7 Parkinson's disease U088

ICD-9 codes: 332

ICD-10 codes: G20-G21

Section II:E8.

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

GBD U089

Worldmapper deaths Map 446

Multiple sclerosis (MS)is a disorder of the nerve fibres within the brain, the spinal chord and going to the eye. It can affect vision, sensation, the use of limbs and control of passing urine (incontinence).

It usually starts between the ages of 20 and 40 years, often initially causing blurred vision. It is more common in women. The illness is usually a long one with years of tempory improvement but often overall increasing disability, and eventually many years spent in a wheelchair.

Multiple sclerosis caused 0.03% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 3 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Denmark, 21
  2. Norway, 20
  3. Switzerland, 20
  4. United Kingdom, 15 
  5. Albania, 14
  6. Canada, 14
  7. Netherlands, 13
  8. Latvia, 13
  9. Poland, 13
  10. Belgium, 13

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E8 Multiple sclerosis U089

ICD-9 codes: 340

ICD-10 codes: G35

Section II:E9.

Drug use disorders

GBD U090

Worldmapper deaths Map 447

Drug use disorders are mental and behavioral disorders due to the use mind-altering (psychoactive) substances for nonmedical purposes. A wide range of often illegal drugs are included here. They include opiates (such as heroin and morphine), amphetamines, cocaine, barbiturates (sleeping pills), drugs that cause hallucinations (such as lysergic acid = LSD) and hydrocarbons ('glue sniffing'). Alcohol is treated separately in U086 Map 443. Most of the drugs associated with these disorders are addictive or habit-forming. The desire to repeat the experience becomes progressively greater.

Estimating mortality directly attributable to illicit drug use such as overdose death is often difficult because the drugs are illegal, stigmatised and hidden. Deaths from diseases spread by non-sterile needles and syringes, such as Hepatitis B U018 Map 387, Hepatitis C U019 Map 388 and HIV/AIDS U009 Map 378, are counted separately.

Drug use disorders caused 0.15% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 14 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Afghanistan, 229
  2. Djibouti, 132
  3. Egypt, 108
  4. Norway, 86
  5. Islamic Republic of Iran, 83
  6. Yemen, 76
  7. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 64 
  8. Morocco, 60
  9. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, 58
  10. Cambodia, 54

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E9 Drug use disorders U090

ICD-9 codes: 304, 305.2-305.9

ICD-10 codes: F11-F16, F18-F19

Section II:E10.

Post-traumatic stress disorder

GBD U091

Worldmapper deaths Map 448

Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs after a psychologically traumatic event, and often includes nightmares and flash-backs about the event and an inability to enjoy life as before.

It is occassionally a cause of Suicide U157 Map 482, which is counted separately. It rarely causes death other than by suicide, but considerable disability. The traumatic events can include serious accidents, rape or assault, military combat, torture, imprisonment, and natural disasters such as floods, fires or earthquakes. The individual was not necessarily physically hurt in the event, but has a mental inability to get over it and move on in life. This can cause difficulties at home and at work and in your social life.

Post-traumatic stress disorder caused 0.00010% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 9 deaths per billion people per year.

The ten highest rates of death in 2002 per million people were in:

  1. Albania, 1.0 
  2. Bosnia Herzegovina, 1.0
  3. Republic of Korea (South Korea), 0.3 
  4. Belgium, 0.2 
  5. Dominican Republic, 0.2
  6. Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), 0.1
  7. Sri Lanka, 0.1
  8. Philippines, 0.1
  9. Cambodia, 0.1
  10. Azerbaijan, 0.1

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E10 Post-traumatic stress disorder U091

ICD-9 codes: 308-309

ICD-10 codes: F43.1

Section II:E11.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

GBD U092

No worldmapper map

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a mental disorder in which there are obsessive thoughts or compulsive acts, or sometimes both.

Obsessive thoughts are particular ideas you want to, but cannot suppress.

Compulsive acts are ones the individual cannot stop doing because he otherwise gets irrationally anxious.

It is sometimes a cause of Suicide U157 Map 482, counted separately, but is unlikely to cause death otherwise.

Global Burden of Disease recorded no deaths in this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E11 Obsessive-compulsive disorder U092

ICD-9 codes: 300.3

ICD-10 codes: F42

Section II:E12.

Panic disorder (Anxiety state)

GBD U093

No worldmapper map

Anxiety states [Panic disorder] are ones where there is anxiety for no apparent reason or completely out of proportion to any apparent reason.

In a panic attack there is sudden overwhelming anxiety often accompanied with difficulty in breathing, sweating and palpitations. The attack lasts for perhaps a quarter of an hour and recurs frequently. The disorder usually starts in young adults and often lasts many years.

In a generalized anxiety disorder the feelings are less intense but last much longer, sometimes months or even years.

It is very occassionally a cause of Suicide U157 Map 482, counted separately, but is unlikely to cause death otherwise.

Global Burden of Disease recorded no deaths in this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E12 Panic disorder U093

ICD-9 codes:

ICD-10 codes:

Section II:E13

Primary Insomnia (Sleep disorder)

GBD U094

No worldmapper map

Primary insomnia is sleep disorder with inability to sleep adequately that is not secondary to other diseases such as Depression U082 Map 439, or Alcohol U086 Map 443, or Drug use U090 Map 447. In Primary insomnia, the sleeping problem is bad enough to cause problems with usual activities from tiredness or suddenly falling asleep.

It rarely is a cause of death except by causing accidents from tiredness, counted separately within Accidents U149 Map 474.

Global Burden of Disease recorded no deaths in this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E13 Primary Insomnia U094

ICD-9 codes: 307.4

ICD-10 codes: F51

Section II:E14.

Migraine (Reccurent one-sided headaches)

GBD U095

No worldmapper map

Migraine is a disorder that causes extremely painful recurrent one-sided headaches (migraine attacks). Typical migraine attacks last between 12 and 24 hours without treatment. Migraine attacks can occur as often as once a day, or as infrequently as once a year. It can begin in adolescence and recur throughout adulthood. It rarely begins after the age of forty. Twice as many women as men are affected by migraine. It is caused by sudden changes in the blood flow inside and outside the skull, but the cause of those changes is not fully understood.

It is not a cause of death, but is a disabling condition because on the day of an attack you are incapable of work.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Migraine caused 1.9% of all female years spent living with a disability worldwide, (table 6).

Global Burden of Disease recorded no deaths in this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E14 Migraine U095

ICD-9 codes: 346

ICD-10 codes: G43

Section II:E15.

Mental Retardation attributable to lead exposure

GBD U096.

No worldmapper map

Mental Retardation attributable to lead exposure is severe mental impairment (mental retardation) attributable to childhood lead exposure. It can occur from children chewing objects painted with a paint containing lead, from exposure to the fumes of vehicles using fuel containing lead and from water supplies using lead pipes. It affects intelligence and the ability to learn throughout life. It is not a cause of death.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E15 Mental Retardation attributable to lead exposure U096

ICD-9 codes: 317-319

ICD-10 codes: F70-F79

Section II:E16.

Other neuropsychiatric disorders

GBD U097

No worldmapper map

Other neuropsychiatric disorders is a residual category of all the conditions that are included in Neuropsychiatric conditions U081 Map 438, but are not included in any of the 15 sub-categories, U082 to U096.

Other neuropsychiatric disorders caused 0.5% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 42 deaths per million people per year.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-E16 Other neuropsychiatric disorders U097

ICD-9 codes: 292-294, 297-300.1, 300.4-302, 305.1, 306-307 (minus 307.4), 310, 312-316, 324-326, 333-337, 341-344, 347-349, 350-359

ICD-10 codes: F04-F09,F17,F34-F39,F401-F409,F411-F419, F43(minus F43.1), F44-F50, F52-F69, F80-F99,G06-G12,G23-G25,G36,G37,G44-G98

Class II:F.

Eye and ear disease (Sense organ diseases)

GBD U098

Worldmapper deaths Map 449

Sense organ diseases is the sum of the following causes (with proportion of deaths attributed here to each category).

  1. Raised pressure inside the eyeball [Glaucoma] U099 Map 450, (3% of deaths)
  2. Opacity of the lens of the eye [Cataracts] U100 no map, (no deaths)
  3. Macular degeneration [Vision disorders, age-related], U101 no map, (no deaths)
  4. Deafness [Adult onset Hearing loss], U102 no map, (no deaths)
  5. Other sense organ disorders, U103 no map, (97% of deaths)

Glaucoma, cataracts and macular degeneration cause impaired vision and blindness. However they are not the only causes of blindness. Onchocerciasis U027, Trachoma U031 Map 234, Vitamin A deficiency U056 Map 414, and Diabetes U079 Maps 239 and 436, are all major causes of blindness. There are also several other conditions causing blindness that affect the newborn.

Although a few deaths, all under 10 per million people per year, are recorded here for 55 territories, they are almost all recorded as "other sense organ disorders" affecting the eyes and ears. Visual impairment and occassionally hearing loss can cause death by contributing to accidents, but these are counted separately within Accidents U149 Map 474.

Sense organ diseases caused 0.006% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 0.5 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Egypt, 8
  2. Suriname, 8
  3. Kiribati, 7
  4. Tuvalu, 7
  5. Marshall Islands, 6
  6. Mongolia, 5
  7. Fiji, 5
  8. Morocco, 5
  9. Tonga, 5
  10. Tunisia, 5 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-F Sense organ diseases U098

ICD-9 codes: 360-380, 383-389

ICD-10 codes: H00-H61, H68-H93

Section II:F1.

Glaucoma

GBD U099

Worldmapper deaths Map 450

Glaucoma is an eye condition. It occurs when pressure of the fluid inside the eyeball becomes too high. This can cause permanent damage to eyesight. A painful form (acute closed-angle glaucoma) can start suddenly in middle age or later, with abnormal vision, pain and vomiting. More common is a painless form (chronic open-angle glaucoma) affecting both eyes but with no symptoms until there is often severe permanent impairment of vision. Prevention of this is by regular screening of people with known increased risk of glaucoma (people with relatives with glaucoma, people who are short-sighted (myopic), and people with certain diseases) and older people. Once it is known that the eye pressure (intraoccular pressure) is too high, treatment, usually with regular eye drops, can lower the pressure and prevent further damage to eyesight.

Glaucoma does not normally cause death except by the visual impairment contributing to accidents, but these are counted separately within Accidents U149 Map 474. However it is a common cause of blindness.

Glaucoma caused 0.0002% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 2 deaths per 100 million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death in 2002 per million people were in:

  1. Israel, 0.59 
  2. Mauritius, 0.26
  3. Jordan, 0.24 
  4. Cuba, 0.24
  5. Guatemala, 0.20
  6. Italy, 0.19
  7. Sri Lanka, 0.13
  8. France, 0.11 
  9. Andorra, 0.10
  10. Republic of Korea (South Korea), 10

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-F1 Glaucoma U099

ICD-9 codes: 365

ICD-10 codes: H40

Section II:F2.

Cataracts

GBD U100

No worldmapper map

Cataracts are an eye condition where the lens of the eye, or the capsule around it becomes increasingly opaque. It causes gradual blurring and loss of vision. It is a common condition in people over 70 years old, usually eventually affecting both eyes. Cataracts can be very successfully treated by operation at any age.

Cataracts can also develop in one eye that has been previously injured. Some children are born with cataracts (congenital cataract). This may be due to the mother having been infected with rubella in early pregnancy, or due to a genetic abnormality.

Cataracts do not normally cause death except by the visual impairment contributing to accidents, but these are counted separately within Accidents U149 Map 474.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Cataracts caused 4.5% of all years spent living with a disability worldwide, 4.5% for males, 4.9% for females (table 6)). GBD also estimated it to cause 2.0% of all Female and 2.4% of all Poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-F2 Cataracts U100

ICD-9 codes: 366

ICD-10 codes: H25-H26

Section II:F3.

Age-related vision disorders (Macular degeneration)

GBD U101

No worldmapper map

Age-related vision disorders is a category for recording disability due to low vision or blindness not included in other categories. It is not a cause of death except by the visual impairment contributing to accidents, but these are counted separately within Accidents U149 Map 474.

A common age-related vision disorders is senile macular degeneration. At the back of the eye is the retina. What you see is projected through the lens at the front of the eye, onto the retina at the back, from where the optic nerve goes to the brain transmitting visual signals. If you take a straight line from what you are looking at, through the centre of the lens of the eye, it always reaches the same spot on the retina (the macula) where vision is particularly acute and all in colour. In old age the macula can become damaged (senile macular degeneration). There is a loss of central vision, but it does not affect peripheral vision. It is a common cause of acquired blindness in rich territories.

Also included here are low vision or blindness due to refractive errors, but sight loss due to other diseases, congenital causes or injury is excluded.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Macular degeneration caused 2.5% of all years spent living with a disability worldwide, 2.3% of all male and 2.7% of all female disability (table 6).

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-F3 Vision disorders, age-related U101

ICD-9 codes: 367.4

ICD-10 codes: H524

Section II:F4.

Adult onset hearing loss (Deafness)

GBD U102

No worldmapper map

Hearing loss is not a cause of death but can be a frustrating disability. However hearing loss was estimated by Global Burden of Disease as causing 4.6% of all years spent living with a disability worldwide in 2002. They used the following definitions:

Moderate (or greater) hearing loss: Hearing threshold level in the better ear is 41 dB or greater averaged over 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz.

Severe (or greater) hearing loss: Hearing threshold level in the better ear is 61 dB or greater averaged over 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Adult onset deafness caused 4.6% of all years living with disability, 4.8% of all male and 4.4% of all female disability (table 6). GBD also estimated it to cause 1.8% of all Female and 2.8% of all Rich territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-F4 Hearing loss, adult onset U102

ICD-9 codes: 389

ICD-10 codes: H90-H91

Section II:F5.

Other sense organ disorders

GBD 103

No worldmapper map

Other sense organ disorders is a residual category of all the conditions that are included in Sense organ diseases U098 Map 449, but are not included in any of the 4 sub-categories, U099 to U102.

Other sense organ disorders caused 0.006% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 0.5 deaths per million people per year.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002. However 97% of the deaths recorded in Sense organ diseases U098 Map 449 are for conditions within this category.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-F5 Other sense organ disorders U103

ICD-9 codes: 360-364, 367-380 (minus 367.4), 383-388

ICD-10 codes: H00-H21,H27-H35, H43-H61(minus H524),H68-H83, H92-H93

Class II:G.

Cardiovascular diseases

GBD U104

Worldmapper deaths Map 451

Cardiovascular diseases are diseases of the heart and blood vessels, and are the sum of the following (with their contribution to the total Cardiovascular diseases deaths in 2002).

  1. Heart failure due to Rheumatic Fever [Rheumatic heart disease], U105 Map 452, (2% of deaths).
  2. Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease], U108 Map 453, (33% of deaths).
  3. Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease], U107 Map 454, (43% of deaths).
  4. High blood pressure [Hypertensive heart disease], U106 Map 455, (5% of deaths).
  5. Inflammation of the heart [Inflammatory heart disease], U109 Map 456, (3% of deaths).
  6. Other cardiovascular diseases, U110 no map, (14% of deaths).

Cardiovascular diseases caused 29% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 2688 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Ukraine, 10324
  2. Russian Federation, 9938 
  3. Bulgaria, 9425
  4. Belarus, 8871
  5. Georgia, 8853
  6. Latvia, 8454 
  7. Estonia, 7780
  8. Serbia and Montenegro, 7087
  9. Romania, 7013
  10. Republic of Moldova, 6457

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-G Cardiovascular diseases U104

ICD-9 codes: 390-459

ICD-10 codes: I00-I99

Section II:G1.

Rheumatic heart disease

GBD U105

Worldmapper deaths Map 452

Rheumatic fever is an illness that usually occurs in childhood. It is caused by an abnormal reaction to a common throat infection (tonsillitis caused by the bacteria streptococcus). You get usually get pain in and swelling of one joint after another and often damage to the heart. The valves inside the heart can be permanently damaged and this is termed Rheumatic heart disease. The average acute attack of rheumatic fever lasts 3 months. Having had one attack you are likely to have more unless you take regular penicillin until you are 25 years old. Heart failure due to the damage to the valves usually does not happen till many years later. Surgery on the heart valves can cure it. The territories where death rates are highest reflect where rheumatic fever is more common, the treatment of the initial illness is less satisfactory and there is failure to prevent recurrent attacks. In those territories successful surgery to the heart valves is likely to be unavailable to many.

Rheumatic heart disease caused 0.57% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 53 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. India, 99
  2. Syrian Arab Republic, 99 
  3. Bhutan, 89
  4. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 88 
  5. Afghanistan, 85
  6. Pakistan, 77 
  7. Myanmar, 77
  8. China, 75
  9. Bangladesh, 71
  10. Kyrgyzstan, 69

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-G1 Rheumatic heart disease U105

ICD-9 codes: 390-398

ICD-10 codes: I01-I09

Section II:G2.

Strokes (Cerebrovascular disease)

GBD U108

Worldmapper deaths Map 453

Cerebrovascular disease is disease of the arteries leading to and within the brain. This is the cause of strokes (cerebrovascular accidents = CVA). These occur when the blood supply to a part of the brain stops, either because of an obstruction inside an artery, or the rupture of an artery with bleeding into the brain. After a massive stroke, death is usually not immediate, but the person becomes unconscious (coma) and does not recover. In smaller strokes the person may not loose consciousness, but has difficulty moving an arm and/or leg on one side of the body (hemiplegia), difficulty talking (dysphasia) or other signs of brain disfunction. There is usually improvement over a period of months, but often there is not a full recovery.

Factors increasing the risk of cerebrovascular disease are similar those for to Ischaemic heart disease U107 Map 454, but males are only slightly more at risk and strokes affect an older age group, usually over 60 years old.

In 2002 Strokes caused 4.9% of deaths in adults aged 15 to 59 years, 16.2% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 5), 13.3% of all deaths in rich territories, 13.8% of all deaths in poor territories and 5.3% of all deaths in very poor territories (table 4).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Strokes caused 2.2% of all male years spent living with a disability worldwide, (table 6). GBD also estimated it to cause 3.3% of all Male, 3.3% of all Female, 6.4% of all Rich territory and 5.0% of all Poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Strokes caused 9.6% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 885 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Russian Federation, 3704 
  2. Latvia, 3125 
  3. Georgia, 3029
  4. Bulgaria, 2700
  5. Ukraine, 2579
  6. Romania, 2335
  7. Belarus, 2293
  8. Estonia, 2215
  9. Greece, 2069 
  10. Serbia and Montenegro, 2065

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-G4 Cerebrovascular disease U108

ICD-9 codes: 430-438

ICD-10 codes: I60-I69

Section II:G3.

Heart attacks (Ischaemic heart disease)

GBD U107

Worldmapper deaths Map 454

Ischaemic heart disease (coronary artery disease) is a condition in which some of the heart muscle does not get an adequate supply of blood. If the lack of blood is extreme, a section of heart muscle can die causing a heart attack (myocardial infarction = coronary thrombosis). If the lack of blood is less extreme, you get chest pain (angina) especially when doing physical activities (on exertion) because the heart muscle needs more oxygen then and is short of it.

The cause of ischaemic heart disease is narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis) that go to the heart muscle (the coronary arteries). The risk of this happening is increased in people who smoke tobacco, have raised blood pressure (hypertension) and have higher levels of a fatty substance (cholesterol) in the blood than normal. Some of the other factors that increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease are: being male, a family history (genetic factors), Diabetes U079 Map 436, and being overweight (obesity). Ischaemic heart disease mainly occurs in people over 40 years old. It is the commonest cause of sudden death (when an apparently healthy person drops down dead) in people over 40 years.

Included here were deaths coded as heart failure, ventricular dysrhythmias, generalised atherosclerosis and other ill-defined desciptions and complications of heart disease.

In 2002 Heart attacks caused 8.3% of deaths in adults aged 15 to 59 years, 20.1% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 5), 22.8% of all deaths in rich territories, 9.7% of all deaths in poor territories and 9.3% of all deaths in very poor territories (table 4).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Heart Attacks to cause 4.4% of all Male, 3.4% of all Female, 9.1% of all Rich territory, 3.3% of all Poor territory and 2.9% of all Very poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Heart attacks caused 12.6% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 1158 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Ukraine, 6863
  2. Belarus, 5978
  3. Georgia, 5029
  4. Russian Federation, 4939 
  5. Estonia, 4660
  6. Republic of Moldova, 4346
  7. Latvia, 4262 
  8. Lithuania, 4231
  9. Kazakhstan, 3358
  10. Bulgaria, 3344

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-G3 Ischaemic heart disease U107

ICD-9 codes: 410-414

ICD-10 codes: I20-I25

Section II:G4.

Hypertensive heart disease

GBD U106

Worldmapper deaths Map 455

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a common condition in which the heart has to pump extra hard to get the blood to circulate. The extra strain on the heart causes Hypertensive heart disease. The specific cause of high blood pressure is often unknown, although alcohol, obesity and a high salt intake make it worse.

High blood pressure initially causes no symptoms, but increases the risk of having a Heart attack U107 Map 454, or Stroke U108 Map 453 as well as Hypertensive heart disease. The higher the blood pressure the greater the risk. Hypertensive heart disease is caused by the strain the high blood pressure puts on the heart. This causes the heart to initially get larger, but eventually it can fail because it is not strong enough to cope with the increased resistance to the blood going through the arteries. Hypertension can often be treated successfully by long term drugs, but this depends on the condition being diagnosed before any symptoms occur as well as good and affordable medical services.In 2002 Strokes caused 13.3% of all deaths in rich territories, 13.8% of all deaths in poor territories and 5.3% of all deaths in very poor territories (table 4).

In 2002 Blood pressure caused 2.6% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 4c), 1.7% of all deaths in rich territories and 2.7% of all deaths in poor territories with reasonable life expectancy (table 4).

High blood pressure caused 1.6% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 146 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Seychelles, 1124
  2. Turkmenistan, 1057 
  3. Tajikistan, 1013
  4. Dominica, 996
  5. Romania, 753 
  6. Grenada, 645 
  7. Slovakia, 608
  8. Bulgaria, 591
  9. Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), 584
  10. Nauru, 557 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-G2 Hypertensive heart disease U106

ICD-9 codes: 401-405

ICD-10 codes: I10-I13

Section II:G5.

Inflammatory heart diseases

GBD U109

Worldmapper deaths Map 456

Inflammatory heart diseases is inflammation of a part of the heart, often due to infection. Inflammation of the outer surface of the heart (pericardium) is called pericarditis. Inflammation of the muscle of the heart (myocardium) is called myocarditis. Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (endocardium) is called endocarditis.

Pericarditis causes chest pain and breathlessness. The commonest cause is a viral infection. Tuberculosis U002 Map 373 can also cause it.

Myocarditis causes breathlessness and a throbbing heart (palpitations). There may also be symptoms from other aspects of the infection that caused the myocarditis. A wide variety of viral and bacterial infections occassionally cause it, including Diphtheria U014 Map 383. Parasites can cause it, especially Chagas' disease U023 Map 392. Chronic alcoholism U086 Map 443, and Rheumatic fever U105 Map 452, can also be causes.

Endocarditis usually involves bacterial infection on the surface of the heart valves. Untreated it is usually fatal, leading to heart failure, and/or Strokes U109 Map 456 (from debris breaking off (emboli) into the blood stream which then can block the arteries in the brain).

Inflammatory heart diseases caused 0.71% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 65 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 1573
  2. Bosnia Herzegovina, 825
  3. Serbia and Montenegro, 465
  4. Slovenia, 399
  5. Latvia, 286
  6. Estonia, 234 
  7. Russian Federation, 219
  8. Armenia, 189 
  9. San Marino, 179
  10. Azerbaijan, 177

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-G5 Inflammatory heart diseases U109

ICD-9 codes: 420, 421, 422, 425

ICD-10 codes: I30-I33, I38, I40, I42

Section II:G6.

Other cardiovascular diseases

GBD U110

No worldmapper map

Other cardiovascular diseases is a residual category of all the conditions that are included in cardiovascular diseases U104 Map 451, but are not included in any of the 5 sub-categories, U105 to U109.

Other cardiovascular diseases caused 4.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 381 deaths per million people per year.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-G6 Other cardiovascular diseases U110

ICD-9 codes: 415-417, 423-424, 426-429, 440-448, 451-459

ICD-10 codes: I00, I26-I28, I34-I37, I44-I51, I70-I99

Class II:H.

Respiratory diseases

GBD U111

Worldmapper deaths Map 457

Respiratory diseases are diseases of the lungs not caused by infection. They are the sum of the following (with their contribution to the total Respiratory diseases deaths in 2002).

  1. Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease], U112 Map 458, (74% of deaths).
  2. Asthma, U113 Map 459, (7% of deaths).
  3. Other respiratory diseases, U114 no map, (19% of deaths).

Respiratory infections U038 Map 403, are counted separately.

Respiratory diseases caused 6.48% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 595 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. China, 1100
  2. Denmark, 876 
  3. Spain, 870
  4. Sri Lanka, 824
  5. Belgium, 741 
  6. Argentina, 730
  7. Cyprus, 724
  8. United Kingdom, 720
  9. Andorra, 719 
  10. Tuvalu, 687

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-H Respiratory diseases U111

ICD-9 codes: 470-478, 490-519

ICD-10 codes: J30-J98

Section II:H1.

Chronic bronchitis (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

GBD U112

Worldmapper deaths Map 458

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (C0PD) includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which often occur together.

Chronic bronchitis is when you cough up mucus (sputum=phlegm) most days for months each year. It restricts the airways and makes you breathless.

Emphysema is when the air spaces (alveoli) in the lung become larger and fewer, reducing the effective surface area of the lung and the lungs efficiency at getting oxygen into the blood. This also makes you breathless.

COPD is also known as COAD and COLD, where A=Airways and L=Lung.

Worldwide the two main cause of COPD are tobacco smoking for many years and indoor air pollution from solid fuel used for cooking. Many dusty jobs and bad air pollution where people live and work can cause COPD. It gets very gradually worse with exacerbations due to Respiratory infections U038 Map 403. After many years you become breathless on any activity, and death often occurs from what would otherwise have been a minor respiratory infection, like catching a cold.

In 2002 Chronic bronchitis caused 8.3% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 5c), 3.2% of all deaths in rich territories, 9.5% of all deaths in poor territories and 2.8% of all deaths in very poor territories (table 4).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Chronic bronchitis to cause 2.0% of all Male, 1.7% of all Female, 2.7% of all Rich territory and 3.1% of all Poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused 4.8% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 442 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. China, 986
  2. Denmark, 755 
  3. Kyrgyzstan, 567
  4. Guatemala, 533
  5. Belarus, 522 
  6. Viet Nam, 522
  7. Ukraine, 517 
  8. Sri Lanka, 504
  9. Belgium, 485 
  10. United Kingdom, 481

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-H1 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease U112

ICD-9 codes: 490-492, 495-496

ICD-10 codes: J40-J44

Section II:H2.

Asthma

GBD U113

Worldmapper deaths Map 459

Asthma (bronchial asthma) is a condition in which you get recurrent episodes of breathlessness. Most often it starts in children under age 10 years, when it affects many more boys than girls, and many of them will grow out of it. It also often starts between ages 10 years and 30 years, but then equally in both sexes.

The breathlessness is due to difficulty in getting air into the lungs due to 3 factors; constriction of the muscles around the airways (bronchospasm), swelling of the lining of the airways (mucosal oedema) and secretions inside the airways (increased mucus production). Episodes of breathlessness can come on suddenly and are occassionally life threatening. In-between these attacks, at least in the early stages, breathing is completely normal.

Attacks can be set off by allergens (pollen, dust etc), exertion, infection (mainly Upper respiratory infections U040, Map 405) and emotion (eg having a fright).

There can be family history (genetic factor) and often the person also has eczema, hay fever or an allergy to something else.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Asthma caused 2.3% of all male years spent living with a disability worldwide (table 6).

Asthma caused 0.42% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 39 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Fiji, 205
  2. Kiribati, 202
  3. Sao Tome and Principe, 157
  4. Sri Lanka, 153
  5. Mauritius, 151
  6. Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), 151
  7. South Africa, 140
  8. Russian Federation, 134
  9. Republic of Korea (South Korea), 133 
  10. Cape Verde, 129

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-H2 Asthma U113

ICD-9 codes: 493

ICD-10 codes: J45-J46

Section II:H3.

Other respiratory diseases

GBD U114

No worldmapper map

Other respiratory diseases is a residual category of all the conditions that are included in respiratory diseases U104 Map 451, but are not included in any of the 2 sub-categories, U112 and U113.

Other respiratory diseases caused 1.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 115 deaths per million people per year.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-H3 Other respiratory diseases U114

ICD-9 codes: 470-478, 494, 500-508,510-519

ICD-10 codes: J30-J39,J47-J98

Class II:I.

Digestive tract diseases

GBD U115

Worldmapper deaths Map 460

Digestive diseases are diseases of the alimentary tract, the liver and the pancreas which are not caused by infection or cancer. They are the sum of the following (with their contribution to the total Digestive diseases deaths in 2002):

  1. Peptic ulcer disease, U116 Map 461, (13% of deaths).
  2. Cirrhosis of the liver, U117 Map 462, (40% of deaths).
  3. Appendicitis, U118 Map 463, (1% of deaths).
  4. Other digestive diseases, U119 no map, (46% of deaths).

Include other diseases of the digestive tract are other diseases of the oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and intestines, other diseases of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas and hernias (ruptures).

Digestive diseases caused 3.44% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 316 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Kiribati, 1449
  2. Republic of Moldova, 1116
  3. Hungary, 882 
  4. Romania, 707 
  5. Slovenia, 687
  6. Bolivia, 604 
  7. Denmark, 585 
  8. Egypt, 574
  9. Sri Lanka, 565
  10. Russian Federation, 561

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-I Digestive diseases U115

ICD-9 codes: 530-579

ICD-10 codes: K20-K92

Section II:I1.

Peptic ulcer disease

GBD U116

Worldmapper deaths Map 461

Peptic ulcers are ulcers (sores) which occur inside the upper part of the alimentary (gastrointestinal) tract. They can develop in the lower part of the oesophagus (gullet), stomach, its end (the pylorus), the next bit (the duodenum) and as far down as the jejunum (the first parts of the small intestine). These are all places that gastric (stomach) juices can get to. These juices contain hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes (pepsin). The most common peptic ulcers are found in the duodenum. Most duodenal ulcers are caused by the presence of a bacteria (Helicobacter pylori). Gastric (stomach) ulcers are more common in people who are poor and undernourished, and in chronic users of aspirin (and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - NSAIDs) and alcohol. Duodenal ulcers particularly affect men aged 20 to 50 years, and gastric ulcers men aged 40 to 70 years.

Peptic ulcers can cause pain, bleed (sometimes fatally), perforate (often fatally) and cause strictures (stenosis), a narrowing that prevents some or all food getting through.

Peptic ulcer disease caused 0.46% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 42 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), 130
  2. Denmark, 119 
  3. Kiribati, 101
  4. Myanmar, 95
  5. Philippines, 85
  6. United Kingdom, 82 
  7. Nepal, 77
  8. Hungary, 76
  9. Timor-Leste, 75
  10. Slovenia, 74

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-I1 Peptic ulcer disease U116

ICD-9 codes: 531-533

ICD-10 codes: K25-K27

Section II:I2.

Cirrhosis of the liver

GBD U117

Worldmapper deaths Map 462

The liver is a very large organ inside the abdomen that has many regulatory and storage functions. It secretes bile, a fluid which helps the digestion of fats and removes toxins (harmful substances) such as alcohol from the blood. Cirrhosis of the liver is a condition in which the functioning liver tissue is gradually dying (necrosis) and being replaced by fibrous (connective) tissue. As it progresses liver function deteriorates which can lead to death. It is especially common among malnourished chronic alcoholics (see Alcohol use disorders U086 Map 443). It can be caused by Hepatitis B U018 Map 387, and Hepatitis C U019 Map 388.

In 2002 Cirrhosis caused 2.4% of deaths in adults aged 15 to 59 years (table 5b).

Cirrhosis caused 1.4% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 126 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Republic of Moldova, 892 
  2. Hungary, 570 
  3. Romania, 491 
  4. Slovenia, 396
  5. Kyrgyzstan, 353
  6. Georgia, 317 
  7. Croatia, 314 
  8. Turkmenistan, 296
  9. Kazakhstan, 282
  10. Bolivia, 279

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-I2 Cirrhosis of the liver U117

ICD-9 codes: 571

ICD-10 codes: K70-K74

Section II:I3.

Appendicitis

GBD U118

Worldmapper deaths Map 463

The appendix (vermiform appendix) is a blind extension of the bowel in the lower right abdomen. Appendicitis occurs when the entrance to the appendix becomes blocked and infection sets in. If the appendix ruptures (perforates) infection spreads thoughout the abdomen (peritonitis) which is fatal without antibiotics and expert care. Because of the risk of this happening and often a prolonged illness otherwise, surgery (appendicectomy) when available is the best treatment.

Appendicitis caused 0.04% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 3 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Haiti, 29
  2. Mongolia, 14 
  3. Tuvalu, 11
  4. Bolivia, 10
  5. Honduras, 8
  6. Peru, 8
  7. Ecuador, 7
  8. St Lucia, 7
  9. Antigua and Barbuda, 7
  10. Nicaragua, 6

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-I3 Appendicitis U118

ICD-9 codes: 540-543

ICD-10 codes: K35-K37

Section II:I4.

Other digestive diseases style='mso-tab-count:2'> 

GBD U119

No worldmapper map

Other digestive diseases is a residual category of all the conditions that are included in digestive diseases U104 Map 451, but are not included in any of the 3 sub-categories, U116 to U118.

Other digestive diseases caused 1.6% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 144 deaths per million people per year.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-I4 Other digestive diseases U119

ICD-9 codes: 530, 534-537, 550-553, 555-558, 560-570, 572-579

ICD-10 codes: K20-K22,K28-K31,K38,K40-K66,K71-K73,K75-K92

Class II:J.

Genitourinary tract diseases

GBD U120

Worldmapper deaths Map 464

The genitourinary system comprises the sexual organs and the urinary organs. Genitourinary diseases here are ones not due to infection or cancer, affecting the kidneys and bladder. In men it also includes conditions of the prostate and penis, and in women conditions of the uterus if not due to pregnancy. Conditions due to pregnancy are counted in Maternal conditions U042 Map 407. In men conditions of the testes, and in women conditions of the ovary are only included if not also in Endocrine disorders U080 Map 437.

Genitourinary diseases are divided into (with their contribution to the total Genitourinary diseases deaths in 2002):

  1. Kidney disease [Nephritis and nephrosis], U121 Map 465, (80% of deaths).
  2. Enlarged prostate [Benign prostatic hypertrophy], U122 Map 466, (4% of deaths).
  3. Other genitourinary system diseases, U123 no map, (16% of deaths).

Genitourinary diseases caused 1.5% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 136 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Nauru, 421
  2. Tuvalu, 406
  3. Syrian Arab Republic, 379
  4. Marshall Islands, 370
  5. Grenada, 364 
  6. Jamaica, 329 
  7. Egypt, 308
  8. Afghanistan, 306
  9. Bolivia, 302 
  10. St Kitts and Nevis, 289

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-J Genitourinary diseases U120

ICD-9 codes: 580-611, 617-629

ICD-10 codes: N00-N64, N75-N98

Section II:J1.

Kidney diseases (Nephritis and nephrosis)

GBD U121

Worldmapper deaths Map 465

The kidneys are at the back of the abdomen, one on each side. They are responsible for regulating the concentration of some constituents in the blood, and excreting excess water and waste products in the urine. Nephritis and nephrosis here include all conditions affecting the kidneys that are not directly due to infection or cancer. You can live normally with one good kidney. Included here are a range of conditions that impair the function of the kidneys. Inflammation within the kidneys (various forms of glomerulonephritis) can lead to kidney failure. Persistent obstruction to the outflow of urine from, for example, kidney stones (renal calculi) can also cause kidney failure.

Nephritis and nephrosis caused 1.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 109 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Nauru, 417
  2. Tuvalu, 335
  3. Marshall Islands, 301
  4. Egypt, 297
  5. El Salvador, 279
  6. Grenada, 279 
  7. Afghanistan, 277
  8. St Kitts and Nevis, 267
  9. Bolivia, 247
  10. Fiji, 243

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-J1 Nephritis and nephrosis U121

ICD-9 codes: 580-589

ICD-10 codes: N00-N19

Section II:J2.

Enlarged prostate (Benign prostatic hypertrophy)

GBD U122

Worldmapper deaths Map 466

The prostate is a gland that only men have, at the base of the bladder. Most men over 50 years have some enlargement of the prostate gland, benign prostatic hypertrophy (called benign because it is not caused by cancer). It causes difficulty passing urine when the prostate starts to obstruct the outflow of urine from the bladder. This can lead to never being able to fully empty the bladder (chronic retention of urine) or to being completely unable to pass any urine (acute retention of urine). Without treatment these problems can ultimately lead to kidney failure.

Benign prostatic hypertrophy caused 0.06% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 5 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Grenada, 33
  2. Jamaica, 27
  3. Suriname, 25 
  4. Guyana, 24
  5. Trinidad and Tobago, 23
  6. Armenia, 19
  7. Dominica, 17 
  8. Latvia, 16
  9. Denmark, 15
  10. Russian Federation, 13 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-J2 Benign prostatic hypertrophy U122

ICD-9 codes: 600

ICD-10 codes: N40

Section II:J3.

Other genitourinary system diseases

GBD U123

No worldmapper map.

Other genitourinary system diseases is a residual category of all other conditions included in Genitourinary diseases U120 Map 464, that are not included in the 2 sub-categories U121 and U122.

Other genitourinary system diseases caused 0.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 22 deaths per million people per year.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-J3 Other genitourinary system diseases U123

ICD-9 codes: 590-599, 601-611, 617-629

ICD-10 codes: N20-N39, N41-N64, N75-N98

Class II:K.

Skin diseases

GBD U124

Worldmapper deaths Map 467

There are a very large number of skin diseases which cause considerable distress. Melanoma and other skin cancers U068 Map 426, are not included here. Skin infections not secondary to an underlying skin disease are included in Other infectious diseases U037 no map. Some common skin diseases can reduce the resistance of the skin to infection which can be serious. Otherwise skin conditions that can be fatal are rare.

Skin diseases caused 0.12% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 11 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Barbados, 180
  2. Malta, 137
  3. Antigua and Barbuda, 129 
  4. Kiribati, 118
  5. Bahrain, 112 
  6. Gabon, 99
  7. Equatorial Guinea, 97
  8. Sierra Leone, 95
  9. Central African Republic, 90
  10. Mauritania, 89 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-K Skin diseases U124

ICD-9 codes: 680-709

ICD-10 codes: L00-L98

Class II:L.

Musculoskeletal diseases

GBD U125

Worldmapper deaths Map 468

Musculoskeletal diseases are conditions affecting the muscles, bones and joints not caused by infection or cancer.

They are the sum of the following (with their contribution to the total Musculoskeletal diseases deaths in 2002):

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis, U126 Map, (23% of deaths).
  2. Osteoarthritis, U127 Map, (4% of deaths).
  3. Gout, U128 no map, (no data given).
  4. Low back pain, U129 no map, (no data given).
  5. Other musculoskeletal disorders, U130 no map, (no data given).

Global Burden of Disease does not detail the figures for 3, 4 and 5; but it is probable that most of the remaining 72% of deaths here were in the last category, other musculoskeletal disorders.

Musculoskeletal diseases caused 0.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 17 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Nauru, 115
  2. Grenada, 94
  3. Sri Lanka, 92
  4. Denmark, 82
  5. Spain, 82
  6. Andorra, 78
  7. Switzerland, 74
  8. United Kingdom, 71 
  9. Belgium, 67
  10. Republic of Korea (South Korea), 62

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-L Musculoskeletal diseases U125

ICD-9 codes: 710-739, 274

ICD-10 codes: M00-M99

Section II:L1.

Rheumatoid arthritis

GBD U126

Worldmapper deaths Map 469

Rheumatoid arthritis is a condition that causes pain and inflammation and stiffness in many joints, especially in the hands. Its cause is not known. It can start at any age, but most commonly between 40 and 50 years old. Three times as many women as men are affected. Some people just have a single attack and recover completetely. Other people get recurrent attacks, often with previously unaffected joints becoming involved and often resulting in permanent damage to some joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is a common condition, but it is only rare complications of rheumatoid arthritis and its treatment that can be fatal. Deaths due to accidents due to arthrits are counted separately within Accidental deaths U149 Map 474.

Rheumatoid arthritis caused 0.04% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 4 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Finland, 26
  2. Sweden, 21
  3. New Zealand, 20
  4. Norway, 19
  5. Denmark, 19
  6. Ireland, 16
  7. Bolivia, 15
  8. United Kingdom, 15 
  9. Estonia, 15
  10. Dominica, 14

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-L1 Rheumatoid arthritis U126

ICD-9 codes: 714

ICD-10 codes: M05-M06

Section II:L2.

Osteoarthritis

GBD U127

Worldmapper deaths Map 470

Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease, osteoarthrosis) is the most common joint condition amongst older people. It is often thought to be caused by wear and tear of joints. Few people get painful joints before 50 years old. Changes to joints which are visible on Xrays that are due to osteoarthritis are present in most people over 50 years old, although very many will not have significant symptons from it. As the disease progresses, the joints get stiffer and bending them more painful.

Deaths directly from osteoarthritis are very rare, but treatments for it carry some risk. Deaths due to falls, in which it might have been a contributary factor, are counted separately within Falls U152 Map 477. Disability due to osteoarthritis, especially difficulty walking due to osteoarthritis in the hip joints, is considerable.

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Osteoarthritis caused 2.6% of all years spent living with a disability worldwide, 3.1% of all female disability (table 6).

Osteoarthritis caused 0.0083% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 1 death per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Switzerland, 17
  2. Norway, 12
  3. Barbados, 11 
  4. Cuba, 11
  5. Denmark, 9
  6. New Zealand, 9
  7. Canada, 6
  8. Australia, 6 
  9. United Kingdom, 6
  10. Uruguay, 5 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-L2 Osteoarthritis U127

ICD-9 codes: 715

ICD-10 codes: M15-M19

Section II:L3.

Gout

GBD U128

No worldmapper map

Gout (crystal arthropathy) is caused by high levels of urate in the blood (hyperuricaemia). You get attacks of very severe pain in joints (typically in the big toe, podagra) due to crystals of sodium urate in the joint fluid. Urate and urea are nitrogen-containing waste substances from the breakdown of food and body protein. Urea is easily excreted dissolved in the urine, but urate can cause crystals in the kidneys (forming stones) and the bladder (calculi). Deaths from kidney damage due to these stones are not counted here, but within Kidney disease U121 Map 465.

Separate death rates were not given for gout by Global Burden of Disease for 2002, but are included below with Other musculoskeletal disorders U130. Gout rarely causes death apart from by kidney damage.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-L3 Gout U128

ICD-9 codes: 274

ICD-10 codes: M10

Section II:L4.

Low back pain

GBD U129

No worldmapper map

Low back pain is a very common condition which can cause considerable disability and periodic inability to work.

It is not a cause of death.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-L4 Low back pain

GBD U129

ICD-9 codes: 720-724 (minus 721.1,722.0, 722.4)

ICD-10 codes: M45-M48, M54 (minus M54.2)

Section II:L5.

Other musculoskeletal disorders

GBD U130

No worldmapper map

Other musculoskeletal disorders is a residual category of all the conditions included in Musculoskeletal diseases U125 Map 468, that are not included in any of the 4 sub-categories U126 to U129.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002. Together with Gout U128, Other musculoskeletal disorders caused 0.13% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 12 deaths per million people per year.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-L5 Other musculoskeletal disorders U130

ICD-9 codes: 710-713, 716-719,721.1, 722.0, 722.4, 723, 725-739

ICD-10 codes: M00-M02, M08, M11-M13, M20-M43, M50-M53, M54.2, M55-M99

Class II:M.

Birth defects (Congenital anomalies)

GBD U131

Worldmapper deaths Map 471

Congenital anomalies are birth defects, severe abnormalities that children are born with. These include conditions due to a genetic abnormality and conditions due to a failure of the fetus to develop normally in the early stages of pregnancy. For some conditions a cause is known, but for many it is not. Congenital anomalies are more common where people have been exposed to radioactivity or toxic chemicals. Sometimes toxic chemicals in the ground get into food products or into the drinking water supply. Global Burden of Disease divided congenital anomalies into the following 11 sections described below, but did not give separate data for each section for 2002.

  1. Abdominal wall deficit, U132.
  2. Anencephaly, U133.
  3. Anorectal atresia, U134.
  4. Cleft lip, U135.
  5. Cleft palate U136.
  6. Oesophageal atresia, U137.
  7. Renal agenesis, U138.
  8. Down's syndrome, U139.
  9. Congenital heart anomalies, U140.
  10. Spina bifida, U141.
  11. Other Congenital anomalies, U142.

In 2002 Birth defects caused 3.7% of deaths in children under 15 years old (table 5a).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Birth defects to cause 1.8% of all Male and 1.9% of all Female burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Birth defects caused 0.9% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 79 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Afghanistan, 375
  2. Iraq, 344
  3. Yemen, 339
  4. Somalia, 302 
  5. Saudi Arabia, 297
  6. Jordan, 273
  7. Ethiopia, 270
  8. Cambodia, 228
  9. Solomon Islands, 196
  10. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 173

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M Congenital anomalies U131

ICD-9 codes: 740-759

ICD-10 codes: Q00-Q99

Section II:M1.

Abdominal wall deficit

GBD U132

No worldmapper map

Abdominal wall deficit is a gap that allows the intestines to come out (exomphalos). Surgery at birth is necessary to survive.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M1 Abdominal wall deficit U132

ICD-9 codes: 756.7

ICD-10 codes: Q79.2-Q79.5

Section II:M2.

Anencephaly

GBD U133

No worldmapper map

Anencephaly is the absence at birth of all or part of the brain, and death occurs within days.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M2 Anencephaly U133

ICD-9 codes: 740.0

ICD-10 codes: Q00

Section II:M3.

Anorectal atresia

GBD U134

No worldmapper map

Anorectal atresia is a lack of a satisfactory passage from the end of the bowel (rectum) out through the anus. It can be corrected by surgery at birth.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M3 Anorectal atresia U134

ICD-9 codes: 751.2

ICD-10 codes: Q42

Section II:M4.

Cleft lip

GBD U135

No worldmapper map

Cleft lip is the most common facial malformation. The left and right halves of the upper lip are not joined and there is a cleft going up to the nose. It causes difficuly with feeding and later difficulty talking (speech defects), and is a very distressing abnormality if not repaired. It is often accompanied by other congenital abnormalities. Sometimes this condition is inherited.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M4 Cleft lip U135

ICD-9 codes: 749.1

ICD-10 codes: Q36

Section II:M5.

Cleft palate

GBD U136

No worldmapper map

Cleft palate often occurs with cleft lip. It is a gap in the roof of the mouth which often allows food and liquid to go up into the nose and sometimes down into the lungs, in which case surgery essential to prevent recurrent lung infections (aspiration pneumonia) and death.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M5 Cleft palate U136

ICD-9 codes: 749.0

ICD-10 codes: Q35, Q37

Section II:M6.

Oesophageal atresia

GBD U137

No worldmapper map

Oesophageal atresia is a condition where liquid cannot pass from the mouth to the stomach, and in most cases it passes instead into the lungs. It can be cured by surgery at birth, without surgery oesophageal atresia is fatal.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M6 Oesophageal atresia U137

ICD-9 codes: 750.3

ICD-10 codes: Q39.0-Q39.1

Section II:M7.

Renal agenesis

GBD U138

No worldmapper map

Renal agenesis is failure of development of one or both kidneys. You can live normally with just one good kidney.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M7 Renal agenesis U138

ICD-9 codes: 753.0

ICD-10 codes: Q60

Section II:M8.

Down's syndrome

GBD U139

No worldmapper map

Down's syndrome (Mongolism, trisomy 21) is caused by an abnormality of the chromosomes. At conception a baby normally has 23 pairs of chromosomes (long strands of DNA containing all the genes) in every cell. In the commonest form of Down's syndrome there are 3 copies of chomosome number 21, instead of the usual 2 copies of it.

Down's syndrome causes relatively impaired mental functioning, abnormal appearance and often congenital heart defects and other congenital disorders. Some children die before they are a year old from the congenital heart defects. Those that do not, have lower than normal life expectancy.

Down's syndrome becomes much more common in babies born with mothers over age 35 years.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M8 Down's syndrome U139

ICD-9 codes: 758.0

ICD-10 codes: Q90

Section II:M9.

Congenital heart anomalies

GBD U140

No worldmapper map

Abnormalities of the heart that babies are born with vary from some that are rapidly fatal without surgical treatment,to ones you can be unaware of for years. Congenital heart abnormalities include holes between the two sides of the heart, constrictions in the major arteries, and the major arteries being connected to the wrong heart chambers. These can lead to the blood circulating incorrectly. If much blood bypasses the lungs (right to left shunts), enough oxygen does not get into the blood and the baby looks blue (cyanosis). If the blood gets repeatedly diverted back through the lungs (left to right shunts), the rest of the body does not get enough blood.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M9 Congenital heart anomalies U140

ICD-9 codes: 745-747

ICD-10 codes: Q20-Q28

Section II:M10.

Spina bifida

GBD U141

No worldmapper map

Spina bifida (spinal cord defect) is a gap in the bones of the spine which allows damage to the spinal cord. Spinal cord damage can causing difficulty walking and problems with incontinence of urine and faeces. It is a common cause of a child needing a wheelchair but being normal from the waste up. Many cases of Spina bifida are due to inadequate intake of a vitamin (Folic acid).

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M10 Spina bifida U141

ICD-9 codes: 741

ICD-10 codes: Q05

Section II:M11.

Other congenital anomalies

GBD U142

No worldmapper map

Other Congenital anomalies is a residual category of all conditions included in Congenital anomalies U131, but not in the 10 sub-categories U132 to U141.

Global Burden of Disease gave no data for this category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-M11 Other Congenital anomalies U142

ICD-9 codes: 740.1, 740.2, 742-744, 748, 749.2, 750.0, 750.1, 750.2, 750.4-751.1, 751.3-751.9, 752, 753.1-753.9, 754, 755, 756.0-756.6, 756.8, 756.9, 757, 758.1-758.9, 759

ICD-10 codes: Q01-Q04, Q06-Q18, Q30-Q34, Q38, Q392-Q399, Q40-Q41, Q43-Q56, Q61-Q78, Q790, Q791, Q796, Q798, Q799, Q80-Q89, Q91-Q99

Class II:N.

Oral conditions (Mouth disorders)

GBD U143

Worldmapper deaths Map 472

Oral conditions here are conditions of the mouth and teeth, not including cancer. They are the sum of the following (with their relative contribution to the total Oral conditions deaths in 2002):

  1. Dental caries, U144 no map, (0.5% of deaths).
  2. Periodontal disease, U145 no map, (3% of deaths).
  3. Edentulism, U146 no map, (0% of deaths).
  4. Other oral diseases, U147 no map, (97% of deaths).

Oral conditions caused 0.003% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 3 deaths per 10 million people per year. Almost all these deaths are in Other oral diseases U147.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Solomon Islands, 8 
  2. Grenada, 7
  3. Kiribati, 6
  4. Federated States of Micronesia, 5
  5. Tuvalu, 5
  6. Vanuatu, 4
  7. Fiji, 4
  8. Suriname, 3
  9. St Vincent and the Grenadines, 3
  10. Marshall Islands, 3

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-N Oral conditions U143

ICD-9 codes: 520-529

ICD-10 codes: K00-K14

Section II:N1.

Dental caries (Tooth decay)

GBD U144

No worldmapper map

Dental caries (tooth decay)is disease of the teeth. It is very rarely considered a cause of death.

Dental caries caused 0.000014% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 1 deaths per billion people per year.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-N1 Dental caries U144

ICD-9 codes: 521.0

ICD-10 codes: K02

Section II:N2.

Periodontal disease (Gum disease)

GBD U145

No worldmapper map

Periodontal disease (gum disease) is disease around the base of the teeth. It is rarely considered a cause of death

Periodontal disease caused 0.00008% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 8 deaths per billion people per year.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-N2 Periodontal disease U145

ICD-9 codes: 523

ICD-10 codes: K05

Section II:N3.

Edentulism (Tooth loss)

GBD U146

No worldmapper map

Edentulism is having lost all your teeth.

Edentulism is not a cause of death, but causes difficulty eating.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-N3 Edentulism U146

ICD-9 codes: -

ICD-10 codes: -

Section II:N4.

Other oral diseases

GBD U147

No worldmapper map

Other oral diseases is a residual category of all conditions included in Oral conditions U143 Map 472, but not included in any of the 3 sub-categories U144 to U146. They caused 97% of the deaths recorded in Oral conditions U143.

Other oral diseases caused 0.003% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 3 deaths per 10 million people per year.

Global Burden of Disease did not give any specific data for this residual category in 2002.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category II-N4 Other oral diseases U147

ICD-9 codes: 520, 521.1-521.9, 522, 524-529

ICD-10 codes: K00, K01,K03,K04,K06-K14

Group III:.

All injuries

GBD U148

Worldmapper deaths Map 473

Injuries are the sum of the following (with their contribution to the total Injuries deaths in 2002):

  • A. Accidents [Unintentional injuries], U149 Map 474, (69% of deaths).
  • B. Intentional injuries, U156 Map 483, (31% of deaths).

Apart from intent, injuries are not classified by underling cause. In unintentional injuries they are subdivided into the type of accident. In intentional injuries they are subdivided into who intended the injury.

Injury deaths where the intent is not determined, are distributed proportionately to the existing distribution.

Injuries caused 9.0% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 830 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Russian Federation, 2445 
  2. Sierra Leone, 2152 
  3. Burundi, 2132
  4. Liberia, 2102
  5. Democratic Republic of Congo, 2055
  6. Somalia, 1929
  7. Angola, 1910 
  8. Belarus, 1716
  9. Estonia, 1680
  10. Kazakhstan, 1571 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III Injuries U148

ICD-9 codes: E800-E999

ICD-10 codes: V01-Y89

Class III:A.

All accidents (Unintentional injuries)

GBD U149

Worldmapper deaths Map 474

Also see Worldmapper killed by disasters 1975-2000 maps (Eathquakes Map 247, Volcanoes Map 248, Drought Map 249, Floods Map 250, Storms Map 251, Avalanches and Landslides Map 252, Extreme temperature Map 253)

Unintentional injuries are accidents. They are subdivided into the type of accident.

Unintentional injuries are the sum of the following (with their contribution to the total Unintentional injuries deaths in 2002):

  1. Road traffic accidents, U150 Map 475, (33% of deaths).
  2. Poisonings, U151 Map 476, (10% of deaths).
  3. Falls, U152 Map 477, (11% of deaths).
  4. Fires, U153 Map 482, (9% of deaths).
  5. Drownings, U154 Map 482, (11% of deaths).
  6. Other unintentional injuries, U155 Map 482, (26% of deaths).

Many accidents are preventable, particularly by introducing compulsory safety measures and education in safety.

Accidents may occur from medical conditions, such as blindness or difficulty walking, but are counted here and not with the underlying condition.

In territories where there is a reluctance to ascribe deaths to suicide, some suicides may be recorded as here as accidental deaths.

Unintentional injuries caused 6.2% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 570 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Russian Federation, 1588 
  2. Sierra Leone, 1477 
  3. Angola, 1308 
  4. Estonia, 1236
  5. Belarus, 1204
  6. Niger, 1133
  7. Liberia, 1111
  8. Latvia, 1103 
  9. Equatorial Guinea, 1066
  10. Burkina Faso, 1055

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-A Unintentional injuries U149

ICD-9 codes: E800-E949

ICD-10 codes: V01-X59, Y40-Y86, Y88, Y89

Section III:A1.

Road traffic accidents

GBD U150

Worldmapper deaths Map 475, deaths 1994-2001 Map 243

Road traffic accidents includes crashes and pedestrian injuries due to motor vehicles. They occur worldwide, in territories with many vehicles and in ones with relatively few. Over 97% of the world's population live in territories with higher rates of death from road traffic accidents than the United Kingdom, but most people living there consider the rate there unnacceptable and can suggest simple measures that would probably reduce it. Large numbers of road traffic accidents and deaths everywhere are preventable.

In 2002 Road traffic accidents caused 1.5% of deaths of children under 15 years old, 5.0% of deaths of adults aged 15 to 59 years (table 5) and 3.0% of all deaths in poor territories with reasonable life expectancy (table 4b).

Global Burden of disease estimated in 2002 Road traffic accidents to cause 3.5% of all Male, 2.5% of all Rich territory, 3.7% of all Poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).

Road traffic accidents caused 2.1% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 191 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Sierra Leone, 643
  2. Islamic Republic of Iran, 595
  3. Angola, 580
  4. Iraq, 527
  5. United Arab Emirates, 506
  6. Liberia 481
  7. Niger, 431
  8. Mongolia, 429
  9. Lebanon, 412 
  10. Burkina Faso, 403

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-A1 Road traffic accidents U150

ICD-9 codes: E810-E819, E826-E829, E929.0

ICD-10 codes: V01-V04, V06, V09-V80, V87, V89, V99

Section III:A2.

Accidental poisoning

GBD U151

Worldmapper deaths Map 476

The poisonings shown here are accidental poisonings by noxious substances.Not keeping dangerous substances (including medication) out of the reach of children, is a common cause of accidental poisoning. With adults, mistaking one product for another can be the cause. Transport accidents occassional expose people to noxious substances. Intentional poisonings (overdoses) are within Suicide U157 Map 482, and occassionally Murder U158 Map 483. In territories where there is a reluctance to record deaths as due to suicide, there may be pressures to claim that an overdose was taken accidentally. Accidental overdosing with alcohol is common, but usually not included here.

Poisonings caused 0.6% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 56 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Kazakhstan, 583
  2. Russian Federation, 465
  3. Belarus, 398 
  4. Ukraine, 339 
  5. Estonia, 322 
  6. Lithuania, 193
  7. Latvia, 155
  8. Kyrgyzstan, 133
  9. Republic of Moldova, 118 
  10. Democratic Republic of Congo, 113

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-A2 Poisonings U151

ICD-9 codes: E850-E869

ICD-10 codes: X40-X49

Section III:A3.

Falls

GBD U152

Worldmapper deaths Map 477

The falls shown here are accidental falls. Intentional falls (jumping from high places to kill oneself) are within Suicide U157 Map 482, and occassionally Murder (being pushed) U158 Map 483.

Accidental falls are most common in children, the foolhardy and the elderly. Alcohol is often a contributing factor. Certain occupations have much higher risks of falls, especially in territories with little safety regulation.

Falls includes falls due to medical conditions such as poor vision, difficulty walking due to arthritis or a stroke, and subsequent to weak bones (osteoporosis) breaking, especially fractured hips in elderly women. Falls can result from lack of safety measures.

Falls caused 0.7% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 63 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Denmark, 306 
  2. Hungary, 287 
  3. Norway, 209
  4. Finland, 203 
  5. Latvia, 193
  6. Slovenia, 178
  7. Czech Republic, 172
  8. Italy, 170
  9. France, 168
  10. Monaco, 149

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-A3 Falls U152

ICD-9 codes: E880-E888

ICD-10 codes: W00-W19

Section III:A4.

Fires

GBD U153

Worldmapper deaths Map 478

Most of the injuries caused by fires are due to burns, and if extensive can lead to death. People who actually die in a fire often do so from smoke inhalation. Some individuals jump from burning buildings and may be injured or killed. Others are killed in a fire by falling objects. All these deaths are included here.Deaths from fires can be reduced by safety measures, such as smoke alarms. In large buildings fire escapes and escape routes are important. Causes of fires, especially from heating and cooking appliances, can be reduced by safety measures. Oil, gas, petrol and electricity all contain risks which can be reduced by safety regulations. Fire services can save lives, but often only if the can be quick.

Fires caused 0.5% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 50 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. India, 140
  2. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 137
  3. Estonia, 128 
  4. Bhutan, 124
  5. Angola, 116
  6. Sierra Leone, 116
  7. Bangladesh, 109
  8. Pakistan, 108
  9. Liberia, 106 
  10. Niger, 98

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-A4 Fires U153

ICD-9 codes: E890-E899

ICD-10 codes: X00-X09

Section III:A5.

Drownings

GBD U154

Worldmapper deaths Map 479

Worldwide deaths from poisoning, falls, fires and drowning are equally common, but drowning particularly affects men under 40 years old and very young boys. Worldwide death from drowning is more common in rivers than in the sea. Many drownings that occur in adults are after they have been drinking alcohol. A similar number of drownings occur in children under 4 years old who are poorly supervised near water. Toddlers can drown in shallow water, paddling pools and little streams.

Drownings caused 0.7% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 61 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Nauru, 187
  2. Angola, 179
  3. Seychelles, 174
  4. Belarus, 172 
  5. Nigeria, 167 
  6. Malawi, 164
  7. Sierra Leone, 151
  8. Cote d'Ivoire, 148 
  9. Democratic Republic of Congo, 141
  10. Rwanda, 139

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-A5 Drownings U154

ICD-9 codes: E910

ICD-10 codes: W65-W74

Section III:A6.

Other accidental injury (All other unintentional injuries)

GBD U155

Worldmapper deaths Map 480

Other unintentional injuries includes all accidents except road traffic accidents and those involving accidental poisoning, falls, fires and drowning. This includes:

  • Railway, boat and aeroplane accidents.
  • Accidents involving cutting and piercing implements, machinery, electric equipment and radiation.
  • Exposure to the forces of nature and environmental factors.
  • Contact with venomous animals and plants.
  • Death due to complications of medical and surgical care (misadventure during medical and surgical care; adverse reactions to investigations, medical treatment and operations).
  • and various other external causes of unintentional injury.

Although this is strictly a residual category, Global Burden of Disease did not treat it as such and provided complete data. Many of the commoner accidents in this category relate to safety, and can be reduced by regulation and appropriate proceedures.

Other unintentional injuries caused 1.6% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 148 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Russian Federation, 484
  2. Albania, 474 
  3. Equatorial Guinea, 442
  4. Estonia, 420 
  5. Guinea-Bissau, 410 
  6. Sierra Leone, 399
  7. Bolivia, 369 
  8. Niger, 366
  9. Burkina Faso, 361
  10. Mauritania, 346

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-A6 Other unintentional injuries U155

ICD-9 codes: E800-E807, E820-E848, E870-E879, E900-E909, E911-E949

ICD-10 codes: V05, VO7-V08, V81-V86, V88, V90-V98, W20-W64, W75-W99, X10-X39, X50-X59, Y40-Y86, Y88-Y89

Class III:B.

All non-accidental injuries (Intentional injuries)

GBD U156

Worldmapper deaths Map 481

Intentional injuries are those where harm is intended. These are divided into intentional self-harm, illegal violence to others, injuries directly due to war, and legally inflicted injuries. They are the sum of the following (with their relative contribution to the total Intentional injuries deaths in 2002):

  1. Suicide (Self-inflicted injuries), U157 Map 482, (54% of deaths).
  2. Murder (Violence), U158 Map 483, (35% of deaths).
  3. War, U159 Map 484, (11% of deaths).
  4. Other intentional injuries, U160 no map, (1% of deaths).

Intentional injuries caused 2.8% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 260 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Burundi, 1495
  2. Somalia, 1132
  3. Democratic Republic of Congo, 1121
  4. Liberia, 992 
  5. Colombia, 977
  6. Russian Federation, 858
  7. Sudan, 842
  8. Sierra Leone, 675
  9. Cote d'Ivoire, 618 
  10. Angola, 602

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-B Intentional injuries U156

ICD-9 codes: E950-978, E990-999

ICD-10 codes: X60-Y09, Y35-Y36, Y870, Y871

III:B1.

Suicide (Self-inflicted injuries)

GBD U157

Worldmapper deaths Map 482

Suicide (deaths due to deliberate self-inflicted injury) was often and in some places still is considered to be a sin or a crime. Now it is usually recognised as being due to mental illness (psychiatric disorders), and is the commonest cause of death amongst people with depression U082, manic-depression U083, and schizophrenia U084. Mentally ill people are far more a danger to themselves than to other people. A tendency has developed to ascribe all suicides to mental illness. When circumstances are such as to make severe depression a natural response, it is sometimes classed as an illness called reactive depression. When suicide is a response to imprisonment without hope, impossible economic conditions, ill treatment and other obvious causes, it might be better to class such deaths as due to the obvious cause rather than due to a mental illness.

The data here shows that people are more at risk of being killed by themselves than deliberately by other people, but even more likely is being killed in a road traffic accident.

The International Classification of Diseases separates suicide into how it was commited rather than why. The method used to commit suicide depends partly on the availability of means - guns, high buildings to jump off, poisonous coal gas, tablets etc. There are often differences between the methods chosen by men and by women.

In 2002 Suicide caused 4.2% of deaths in adults aged 15 to 59 years (table 5c) and 1.8% of all deaths in rich territories (table 4a).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Suicide to cause 2.3% of all Rich territory burden of disease (table 7c).

Suicide caused 1.5% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 140 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Lithuania, 455
  2. Russian Federation, 410
  3. Belarus, 382 
  4. Kazakhstan, 371
  5. Ukraine, 358 
  6. Sri Lanka, 319
  7. Latvia, 305
  8. Slovenia, 295
  9. Estonia, 287 
  10. Hungary, 282

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-B1 Self-inflicted injuries U157

ICD-9 codes: E950-959

ICD-10 codes: X60-X84, Y870

Section III:B2.

Murder (Violence)

GBD U158

Worldmapper deaths Map 483

Murder here includes homicide, manslaughter and infanticide. These include all deaths due to illegal interpersonal violence. Gun and knife crime, and all criminal activities that result in injury to other people are included, as is domestic violence (violence between married and unmarried couples) and deliberate injury to children and babies by their parents/carers. In societies with low overall levels of violence, many people are more at risk from their friends and relatives than from criminal gangs.

In 2002 violence caused 2.9% of deaths of adults aged 15 to 59 years (table 5b).

Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Violence to cause 2.3% of all Male burden of disease (table 7a).

Violence caused 1.0% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 90 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Colombia, 724
  2. Sierra Leone, 503
  3. South Africa, 432
  4. Angola, 396
  5. El Salvador, 384
  6. Guatemala, 371
  7. Venezuela, 352
  8. Somalia, 331 
  9. Russian Federation, 329
  10. Liberia, 328

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-B2 Violence U158

ICD-9 codes: E960-969

ICD-10 codes: X85-Y09, Y871

Section III:B3.

War

GBD U159

Worldmapper deaths Map 484, War deaths 1945-2004 Map 287, Landmine casualties 2003-2005 Map 290

Injuries and deaths directly due to war in combatants and non-combatants are counted here. This includes deaths of children and adults from landmines.

The datasets used here often rely on press reports of eyewitness accounts and official announcements of combatants. Estimated deaths due to landmines and unexploded ammunition and bombs (especially cluster bombs) are added in separately.

War caused 0.3% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 28 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Burundi, 1246
  2. Democratic Republic of Congo, 860
  3. Somalia, 722 
  4. Liberia, 596 
  5. Sudan, 464
  6. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 393
  7. Congo Republic, 356
  8. Gaza Strip and the West Bank, 314
  9. Uganda, 265
  10. Afghanistan, 257 

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-B3 War U159

ICD-9 codes: E990-E999

ICD-10 codes: Y36

Section III:B4.

Other intentional injuries (Lawful killing)

GBD U160

No worldmapper map

Other intentional injuries is treated as a residual category by Global Burden of Disease being all the conditions included in Intentional injuries U156 Map 481, but not included in any of the 3 sub-categories U157 to U159. It includes all lawful intentional injury to other people that is not classed as due to war. This includes deliberate injuries committed in self defence, injuries deliberately but lawfully inflicted by police and military personnel in the course of their work, and state executions. Global Burden of Disease gave no specic data for this category in 2002, and the figures below were obtained by subtraction.

Other intentional injuries caused 0.02% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 2 deaths per million people per year.

The ten highest rates of death per million people in 2002 were in:

  1. Mongolia, 29 
  2. Venezuela, 19
  3. Afghanistan, 12
  4. Djibouti, 11 
  5. Jamaica, 11
  6. Yemen, 10
  7. Turkey, 9
  8. Iraq, 8
  9. Saint Lucia, 7
  10. Singapore, 7

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for all conditions included in category III-B4 Other intentional injuries U160

ICD-9 codes: E970-E978

ICD-10 codes: Y35



Tables

Table 1
HIGH AND LOW MORTALITY TERRITORIES
Global Burden of Disease have divided territories by overall mortality into 5 groups:

  • A: Very low child mortality and low premature adult mortality.
  • B: Low child mortality and low premature adult mortality.
  • C: Low child mortality and high premature adult mortality.
  • D: High child mortality and high premature adult mortality.
  • E: High child mortality and very high premature adult mortality.

We have used the terms:

  • Rich territories - Territories in group A
  • Poor territories - Territories in groups B and C
  • Very poor territories - Territories in groups D and E

The territories included in each group are listed below.
(Taiwan, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Western Sahara, Greenland, Liechtenstein and the Holy See are not listed because Global Burden of Disease did not include them in its data.)

Table 1A
Very low child mortality and low premature adult mortality.
In Europe:
Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
Not in Europe:
Australia, Canada, Israel, New Zealand, United States of America

Table 1B
Low child mortality and low premature adult mortality.
In North and South America:
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela
In the Middle East:
Bahrain, Cyprus, Islamic Republic Of Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates
In Europe
Albania, Armenia, Bosnia And Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Georgia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Yugoslavia
In Central Asia:
Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
In South East Asia:
Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand
In Eastern Asia:
China, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea (South Korea), Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)
In South East Asia
Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Vietnam
Pacific Islands:
Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

Table 1C
Low child mortality and high premature adult mortality.
Belarus, Estonia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Ukraine

Table 1D
High child mortality and high premature adult mortality.
In Africa:
Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Togo
In North and South America:
Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, Peru
In the Middle East:
Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Morocco, Yemen
In Southern Asia:
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan

Table 1E
High child mortality and very high premature adult mortality.
In Africa:
Botswana, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Table 2
LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH WORLDWIDE, 2002
The leading causes of death worldwide in 2002 are here ranked by Group, by Class and by Section. Almost all categories contain many conditions, and ranking partly depends on how many conditions to include in one category and when to subdivide categories.

Table 2a
Groups:
The figures give the percentage of deaths attributed to that group in 2002.
1 58.7% II Noncommunicable diseases U059 Map 417
2 32.3% I Often preventable conditions [Communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions] U001 Map 371
3 9.0% III Injuries U148 Map 473

Table 2b
Classes:
The figures give the percentage of deaths attributed to that class in 2002.
1 29.3% II:G Cardiovascular diseases U104 Map 451
2 19.2% I:A Infections [Infectious and parasitic diseases] U002 Map 372
3 12.5% II:A Cancer [Malignant neoplasms] U060 Map 418
4 7.0% I:B Respiratory infections U038 Map 304
5 6.5% II:H Respiratory diseases U111 457
6 6.2% III:A Accidents [Unintentional injuries] U149 Map 474
7 4.3% I:D Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 Map 408
8 3.4% II:I Digestive diseases U115 Map 460
9 2.8% III:B Intentional injuries U156 Map 481
10 1.9% II:E Brain disorders [Neuropsychiatric conditions] U081 Map 438
6.9% All other causes of death (Classes I:C,E II:B,C,D,F,J,K,L,M,N)

Table 2c
Sections
The figures give the percentage of deaths attributed to that class in 2002.
1 12.6% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 Map 454
2 9.6% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 Map 453
3 6.9% Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 Map 404
4 5.1% HIV/AIDS U009 Map 378
5 4.8% Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 Map 458
6 3.3% Diarrhoeal diseases U010 Map 379
7 2.7% TB [Tuberculosis] U003 Map 373
8 2.2% Low birth weight U050 Map 409
9 2.2% Lung cancer [Trachea, bronchus and lung cancers] U067 Map 425
10 2.1% Road traffic accidents U150 Map 475
11 2.0% Immunisation targets [Childhood-cluster diseases] U011 Map 380
12 1.6% Other unintentional injuries U115 Map 480
13 1.6% Malaria U020 Map 389
14 1.6% Blood pressure [Hypertensive heart disease] U106 Map 455
15 1.5% Suicide [Self-inflicted injuries] U157 Map 482
16 1.5% Stomach cancer U063 Map 421
17 1.4% Cirrhosis of the liver U117 Map 462
18 1.3% Birth damage [Birth asphyxia and birth trauma] U051 Map 410
19 1.2% Kidney disease [Nephritis and nephrosis] U121 Map 465
20 1.1% Bowel cancer [Colon and rectum cancers] U064 Map 422
33.7% All other causes of death

Table 3
MALE AND FEMALE
The 15 leading causes of death for males and for females worldwide, 2002. Ten are common to both. The figures give the percentage of deaths in that group (all male deaths, all female deaths) attributed to that category in 2002.
Males Females Category
1 12.6% 12.5% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 Map 454
2 8.5% 10.9% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 Map 453
3 6.3% 6.9% Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 Map 404
4 5.1% 4.8% HIV/AIDS U009 Map 378 (Note: 5.1% is the figure for males and females)
5 4.7% 4.9% Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 Map 458
6 4.6% 4.0% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 Map 408
7 3.1% 3.1% Diarrhoeal diseases U010 Map379 (Note: 3.3% is the figure for males and females)
8 3.5% 2.0% TB [Tuberculosis] U003 Map 373
9 3.0% 1.3% Lung Cancer [Trachea, bronchus and lung cancers] U067 Map 425
10 2.0% 2.4% Malaria U020 Map 389
Males also had high rates of death caused by
2.9% Road traffic accidents U150 Map 457
1.8% Suicide [Self inflicted injuries] U157 Map 482
1.7% Stomach cancer U063 Map 421
1.7% Liver damage [Cirrhosis of the liver] U117 Map 462
1.5% Murder [Violence] U158 Map 483
Together with the above these 15 categories accounted for 61% of all male deaths.
Females also had high rates of death caused by
2.0% Diabetes mellitus U079 Map 436
1.9% Pregnancy and childbirth [Maternal conditions] U042 Map 407
1.8% High blood pressure [Hypertensive heart disease] U106 Map 455
1.8% Breast cancer U069 Map 427
1.4% Measles U015 Map 384
Together with the above these 15 categories accounted for 62% of all female deaths.
Note: there are some slight inconsistancies here with Table 2c, which we calculated directly from the source data.

Table 4
RICH AND POOR
The top ten leading causes death for three broad territory groups. These groups are:
a. Rich territories. These are territories in Group A in table 1.
b. Poor territories with reasonable life expectancy. Territories in Groups B and C in table 1.
c. Very poor territories with low life expectancy. Territories in Groups D and E in table 1.

Table 4a.
Rich territories [Developed countries]. Percentage of all deaths in those territories.
1 22.8% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 Map 454
2 13.3% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 Map 453
3 4.5% Lung Cancer [Trachea, bronchus and lung cancers] U067 Map 425
4 3.3% Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 Map 404
5 3.2% Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 Map 458
6 2.6% Bowel cancer [Colon and rectum cancers] U064 Map 422
7 1.8% Diabetes mellitus U079 Map 436
8 1.8% Suicide [Self inflicted injuries] U157 Map 482
9 1.7% High blood pressure [Hypertensive heart disease] U106 Map 455
10 1.7% Stomach cancer U063 Map 421
45.1% All other causes of death

Table 4b.
Poor territories with reasonable life expectancy [Developing low mortality countries]. Percentage of all deaths in those territories.
1 13.8% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 Map 453
2 9.7% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 Map 454
3 9.5% Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 Map 458
4 3.7% Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 Map 404
5 3.6% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 Map 408
6 3.3% TB [Tuberculosis] U003 Map 373
7 3.1% Stomach cancer U063 Map 421
8 3.0% Road traffic accidents U150 Map 475
9 2.8% Lung Cancer [Trachea, bronchus and lung cancers] U067 Map 425
10 2.7% High blood pressure [Hypertensive heart disease] U106 Map 455
44.8% All other causes of death

Table 4c.
Very poor territories with low life expectancy. [Developing high mortality countries]. Percentage of all deaths in those territories.
1 10.0% Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 Map 404
2 9.6% HIV/AIDS U009 Map 378
3 9.3% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 Map 454
4 6.6% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 Map 408
5 5.5% Diarrhoeal diseases U010 Map 379
6 5.3% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 Map 453
7 4.4% Malaria U020 Map 389
8 3.6% TB [Tuberculosis] U003 Map 373
9 2.8% Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 Map 458
10 2.5% Measles U015 Map 384
40.4% All other causes of death

Table 5
YOUNG AND OLD
Leading causes of death indifferent age groups worldwide in 2002.
a. Children aged 0 to 14 years
b. Adults aged 15 to 59 years
c. Adults aged 60+

Table 5a
Leading causes of death of children aged 0 to 14 years old, worldwide in 2002 giving percentage of deaths in each category and total numbers.
% Thousands Category
1 20.6% 2,463 Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 Map 408
2 16.8% 2,018 Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 Map 404
3 13.2% 1,585 Diarrhoeal diseases u010 Map 379
4 9.3% 1,114 Malaria U020 Map 389
5 6.2% 738 Measles U015 Map 384
6 4.0% 479 HIV/AIDS U009 Map 378
7 3.7% 447 Birth defects [Congenital anomalies] U131 Map 471
8 2.5% 303 Whooping cough [Pertussis] U012 Map 381
9 1.9% 221 Tetanus U016 Map 385
10 1.5% 183 Road traffic accidents U150 Map 475
20.3% 2,432 All other causes of death
100.0% 11,983 All causes of death

Table 5b
Leading causes of death of adults aged 15 to 59 years old, worldwide in 2002 giving percentage of deaths in each category and total numbers.
% Thousands Category
1 14.1% 2,279 HIV/AIDS U009 Map 378
2 8.3% 1,332 Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 Map 454
3 6.4% 1,036 Tuberculosis U003 Map 373
4 5.0% 814 Road traffic accidents U150 Map 475
5 4.9% 783 Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U104 Map 451
6 4.2% 673 Suicide [Self-inflicted injuries] U157 Map 482
7 3.2% 510 Pregnancy and childbirth [Maternal conditions] U042 Map 407
8 2.9% 473 Violence U158 Map 483
9 2.4% 382 Cirrhosis of the liver U117 Map 462
10 2.2% 352 Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 Map 404
46.4% 7,489 All other causes of death
100.0% 16,123 All causes of death

Table 5c
Leading causes of death of adults aged 60 years and older, worldwide in 2002 giving percentage of deaths in each category and total numbers.
% Thousands Category
1 20.1% 5,825 Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 Map 454
2 16.2% 4,688 Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U104 Map 451
3 8.3% 2,399 Chronic bonchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 Map 458
4 4.8% 1,396 Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 Map 404
5 3.2% 928 Lung cancer [Trachea, bronchus and lung cancers] U067 Map 425
6 2.6% 754 Diabetes mellitus U079 Map 436
7 2.6% 735 Blood pressure [Hypertensive heart disease] U106 Map 455
8 2.1% 605 Stomach cancer U063 Map 421
9 1.7% 495 Tuberculosis U003 Map 373
10 1.7% 477 Bowel cancer [Colon and rectum cancers] U064 Map 422
36.7% 10,619 All other causes of death
100.0% 28,921 All causes of death

Table 6
DISABILITY
Leading causes of years spent living with a disability, worldwide in 2002. Years lived with a disability (YLD) for a condition is calculated from its incidence times the average duration of disability times the degree of disabilty (disability weight). In this table the total YLD for each category is shown the percentage of the total YLD for all categories for each group.
a. All people
b. All males
c. All females

Table 6a
Top ten causes of disability worldwide in 2002. Disability for each category is given as a percentage of the total number of years spent living with a disability [% of total YLD].
1 11.8% Depression [Unipolar depressive disorders] U082 Deaths Map 439
2 4.6% Deafness [Adult onset hearing loss] U102 no map
3 4.5% Cataracts U100 no map (note:this appears to be the male rate)
4 3.3% Alcohol [Alcohol use disorders] U086 Deaths Map 443
5 3.3% Pregnancy and childbirth [Maternal conditions] U042 Deaths Map 407
6 2.8% Schizophrenia U084 Deaths Map 441
7 2.7% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 Deaths Map 408
8 2.6% Osteoarthritis U127 Deaths Map 470
9 2.5% Macular degeneration [Age related vision disorders] U101 no map
10 2.5% Manic-depression [Bipolar affective disorder] U083 Deaths Map 440
59.4% All other causes of disability

Table 6b
Top ten causes of disability worldwide in 2002 for all males. Disability for each category is given as a percentage of the total number of years spent by males living with a disability [% of total YLD].
1 9.6% Depression [Unipolar depressive disorders] U082 Deaths Map 439
2 5.8% Alcohol [Alcohol use disorders] U086 Deaths Map 443
3 4.8% Deafness [Adult onset hearing loss] U102 no map
4 4.5% Cataracts U100 no map
5 2.8% Schizophrenia U084 Deaths Map 441
6 2.8% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 Deaths Map 408
7 2.5% Manic-depression [Bipolar affective disorder] U083 Deaths Map 440
8 2.3% Asthma U113 Deaths Map 459
9 2.3% Macular degeneration [Age related vision disorders] U101 no map
10 2.2% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 Deaths Map 453
60.4% All other causes of disability

Table 6c
Top ten causes of disability worldwide in 2002 for all females. Disability for each category is given as a percentage of the total number of years spent by males living with a disability [% of total YLD].
1 13.9% Depression [Unipolar depressive disorders] U082 Deaths Map 439
2 6.4% Pregnancy and childbirth [Maternal conditions] U042 Deaths Map 407
3 4.9% Cataracts U100 no map
4 4.4% Deafness [Adult onset hearing loss] U102 no map
5 3.1% Osteoarthritis U127 Deaths Map 470
6 2.7% Macular degeneration [Age related vision disorders] U101 no map
7 2.7% Schizophrenia U084 Deaths Map 441
8 2.6% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 Deaths Map 408
9 2.4% Manic-depression [Bipolar affective disorder] U083 Deaths Map 440
10 1.9% Headache [Migraine] U095 no map
55.0% All other causes of disability

The overall burden of non-fatal disabling conditions is dominated by a relatively short list of causes. In all regions, neuropsychiatric conditions are the most important causes of disability, accounting for over 37% of YLDs among adults (age 15+). The disabling burden of neuropsychiatric conditions is almost the same for males and females, but the major contributing causes are different. While depression is the leading cause for both males and females, the burden of depression is 50% higher for females than males, and females also have higher burden from anxiety disorders, migraine and senile dementias. In contrast, the male burden for alcohol and drug use disorders is nearly six times higher than that for females, and accounts for one quarter of the male neuropsychiatric burden. In high mortality developing regions, visual impairment, hearing loss and HIV/AIDS are the other major contributors to YLDs. In developed and low mortality developing regions, visual impairment, hearing loss, musculoskeletal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other noncommunicable diseases such as stroke account for the majority of adult disability. Surprisingly, more than 80% of global non-fatal health outcomes occur in developing countries and nearly half of all YLDs are prevalent in high mortality developing countries.

Although the prevalence of disabling conditions, such as dementia and musculoskeletal disease, is higher in countries with long life expectancies, this is offset by lower contributions to disability by conditions such as cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases and long-term sequelae of communicable diseases and nutritional deficiencies. In other words, people living in developing countries not only face lower life expectancies (higher risk of premature death) than those in developed countries but also live a higher proportion of their lives in poor health.

Table 7
BURDEN OF DISEASE
Global Burden of Disease assessed the burden of each category of disease using a new measure called DALYs (Disability Adjusted Lost Years). DALYs measure the burden of a disease by the years of lost life due to premature death plus a proportion of the years spent living with disability because of the disease. In the tables, the relative burden of different diseases is given as the proportion of the total DALYs for those people. Figures are given for:
a) All males. b) All females. c) All Rich territories. d) All poor territories. e) All very poor territories.

Table 7a
Top fifteen causes of the burden of disease worldwide in 2002 for all males. The burden of disease for each category is given as a percentage of the total burden of disease for all conditions in all males.
1 6.9% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 deaths Map 408
2 5.8% HIV/AIDS U009 deaths Map 378
3 5.7% Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 deaths Map 404
4 4.4% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 deaths Map 454
5 4.1% Diarrhoea [Diarrhoeal diseases] U010 deaths Map 379
6 3.5% Road traffic accidents U150 deaths Map 475
7 3.4% Depression [Unipolar depressive disorders] U082 deaths Map 439
8 3.3% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 deaths Map 453
9 2.9% TB [Tuberculosis] U003 deaths Map 373
10 2.8% Malaria U020 deaths Map 389
11 2.3% Violence U158 deaths Map 483
12 2.2% Alcohol [Alcohol use disorders] U086 deaths Map 443
13 2.0% Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 deaths Map 458
14 1.8% Birth defects [Congenital anomalies U131 deaths Map 471
15 1.7% Measles U015 deaths Map 384
50.7% All other conditions

Table 7b
Top fifteen causes of the burden of disease worldwide in 2002 for all females. The burden of disease for each category is given as a percentage of the total burden of disease for all conditions in all females.
1 6.2% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 deaths Map 408
2 6.0% Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 deaths Map 404
3 5.7% HIV/AIDS U009 deaths Map 378
4 5.7% Depression [Unipolar depressive disorders] U082 deaths Map 439
5 4.7% Pregnancy and childbirth [Maternal conditions U042 deaths Map 407
6 4.1% Diarrhoea [Diarrhoeal diseases] U010 deaths Map 379
7 3.4% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 deaths Map 454
8 3.3% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 deaths Map 453
9 3.2% Malaria U020 deaths Map 389
10 2.0% Cataracts U100 No worldmapper map
11 1.9% Measles U015 deaths Map 384
12 1.9% Birth defects [Congenital anomalies U131 deaths Map 471
13 1.8% TB [Tuberculosis] U003 deaths Map 373
14 1.8% Deafness [Adult onset Hearing loss] U102 No worldmapper map
15 1.7% Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 deaths Map 458
46.6% All other causes

Table 7c
Top ten causes of the burden of disease in Rich territories (table 1 group A) in 2002. The burden of disease for each category is given as a percentage of the total burden of disease for all conditions in all Rich territories [Developed countries].
1 9.1% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 deaths Map 454
2 7.3% Depression [Unipolar depressive disorders] U082 deaths Map 439
3 6.4% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 deaths Map 453
4 3.6% Alcohol [Alcohol use disorders] U086 deaths Map 443
5 2.8% Deafness [Adult onset Hearing loss] U102 No worldmapper map
6 2.7% Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 deaths Map 458
7 2.5% Road traffic accidents U150 deaths Map 475
8 2.4% Lung cancer [Trachea, bronchus and lung cancers U067 deaths Map 425
9 2.3% Dementia [Alzheimer's and other dementias] U087 deaths Map 444
10 2.3% Suicide [Self-inflicted injuries] GBD U157 deaths Map 482
58.6% All other causes

Table 7d
Top ten causes of the burden of disease in Poor territories (with reasonable life expectancy: table 1 groups B and C) in 2002. The burden of disease for each category is given as a percentage of the total burden of disease for all Poor territories [Developing low mortality countries].
1 6.0% Depression [Unipolar depressive disorders] U082 deaths Map 439
2 5.9% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 deaths Map 408
3 5.0% Strokes [Cerebrovascular disease] U108 deaths Map 453
4 3.7% Road traffic accidents U150 deaths Map 475
5 3.3% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 deaths Map 454
6 3.1% Chronic bronchitis [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] U112 deaths Map 458
7 2.6% Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 deaths Map 404
8 2.4% TB [Tuberculosis] U003 deaths Map 373
9 2.4% Diarrhoea [Diarrhoeal diseases] U010 deaths Map 379
10 2.4% Cataracts U100 No worldmapper map
63.2% All other conditions

Table 7e
Top ten causes of the burden of disease in Very poor territories (with low life expectancy: table 1 groups C and D) in 2002. The burden of disease for each category is given as a percentage of the total burden of disease for all conditions in all Very poor territories [Developing high mortality countries].
1 9.2% HIV/AIDS U009 deaths Map 378
2 8.5% Pneumonia [Lower respiratory infections] U039 deaths Map 404
3 8.0% Birth problems [Perinatal conditions] U049 deaths Map 408
4 5.8% Diarrhoea [Diarrhoeal diseases] U010 deaths Map 379
5 5.1% Malaria U020 deaths Map 389
6 3.1% Pregnancy and childbirth [Maternal conditions U042 deaths Map 407
7 3.1% Depression [Unipolar depressive disorders] U082 deaths Map 439
8 2.9% Heart attacks [Ischaemic heart disease] U107 deaths Map 454
9 2.8% Measles U015 deaths Map 384
10 2.7% TB [Tuberculosis] U003 deaths Map 373
48.8% All other conditions

Table 8 (not yet available)
THIS WILL BE A FULL LIST OF CATEGORIES, DISPLAYING THE TREE STRUCTURE, GIVING MAP NUMBERS AND POSSIBLY TOTAL DEATHS.

Author: David Dorling, October 2007


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