Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (C0PD) includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which often occur together.
Chronic bronchitis is when you cough up mucus (sputum=phlegm) most days for months each year. It restricts the airways and makes you breathless.
Emphysema is when the air spaces (alveoli) in the lung become larger and fewer, reducing the effective surface area of the lung and the lungs efficiency at getting oxygen into the blood. This also makes you breathless.
COPD is also known as COAD and COLD, where A=Airways and L=Lung.
Worldwide the two main cause of COPD are tobacco smoking for many years and indoor air pollution from solid fuel used for cooking. Many dusty jobs and bad air pollution where people live and work can cause COPD. It gets very gradually worse with exacerbations due to Respiratory infections U038 Map 403. After many years you become breathless on any activity, and death often occurs from what would otherwise have been a minor respiratory infection, like catching a cold.
In 2002 Chronic bronchitis caused 8.3% of deaths in people over 60 years old (table 5c), 3.2% of all deaths in rich territories, 9.5% of all deaths in poor territories and 2.8% of all deaths in very poor territories (table 4).
Global Burden of Disease estimated in 2002 Chronic bronchitis to cause 2.0% of all Male, 1.7% of all Female, 2.7% of all Rich territory and 3.1% of all Poor territory burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Lost Years, table 7).
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused 4.8% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 442 deaths per million people per year.