Trypanosomiasis is any infection with single celled microscopic animals (protozoa), of the genus Trypanosoma. However American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), is counted separately.
African Trypanosomiasis are forms of sleeping sickness caused by Tsetse fly. Tsetse flies become infected when they bite and suck blood from an infected person or other mammal. The fly's saliva infects other people when feeding on their blood.
Trypanosomiasis starts with an infected sore and a feverish illness. The earlier it is diagnosed and treated, the better the chance of recovery. The West African form affects the brain, with symptoms that can include excessive sleepiness (hypersomnolence), and can cause death in 2 or 3 years. The East African form can cause death within weeks.
Prevention is by avoiding the flies, which live in woodland; treatment of carriers of the disease; and regular preventive medication of people who must enter jungle areas where there are many tsetse flies.
Trypanosomiasis caused 0.08% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, with an average of 8 deaths per million people.